Social Theory 2/13
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ally Hill on Sunday February 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC0150 at a university taught by Rod Nelson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 213 views.
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Date Created: 02/15/15
Social Theory 21115 601 PM Content of Ideas Control over the means of mental productionquot Who believes in the dominant ideology of the ruling classquot 0 These ideologies are found in mass media and education 0 The state is not neutral it is a tool of the bourgeoisie The state manages the bourgeoisie according to Marx 0 Educational students are a good place to start a passive work force 0 The working class imbibes the ruling ideologies and makes them so passive These people are not in a position to argue anything Marx39s Analysis of Capitalism Commodity Production and the Labor Theory of Value Capitalism produces commodities which are designed for exchange We don t produce goods for ourselves we produce them for an impersonal economic market Usevalue the property that the commodity has of being able to satisfy some want 0 Basically being able to satisfy somebody s wants or needs 0 Someone has a specific use for a particular commodity 0 There are goods that have usevalue that don t enter exchange system Exchangevalue the value that a product or commodity has when it is offered in exchange for something else it is the property of being exchangeable 0 Not everything is exchangeable ex air Marx s analysis in Capital pivots on the issue of what determines exchange value 0 Supply and demand is the conventional way to determine economic value 0 Marx thought there was a deeper analysis of how we determine values of specific commodities Xcorn Yiron o How can we determine how much corn is going to be worth how much iron 0 They are completely different objects 0 These things have to be produced by some workers looked at how much labor power went into the production of these two commodities The labor theory of valuequot 0 Adam Smith falls back on occasion to the labor theory of value 0 Marx fell back on David Ricardo s labor theory 0 He did not invent this he drew on other theorists The Production of Surplus Value and the Secret of Capitalist Profits 0 The circulation of commodities is the starting point of capitalquot p 329 capitalists produce commodities in order to exchange them for money or for other commodities Circuits of capital 0 C M C o M C M M C M M gtM surplus valuequot or profit 0 M prime needs to be greater than M Need to make more than you came in with that day Must make a profit 0 Labor power as a commodity 0 Profit is produced before exchange not after it Logic of supply and demand doesn t take us in the heart of capitalism 0 Labor itself is a commodity under capitalism Labor has a particular value attached to it 0 Value of labor power is a function of the amount of work put in o Worker as a commodity has the downside that this is a commodity that will eventually wear out Workers should produce children that down the road will also become workers 0 What constitutes the value of labor What does it take to keep this person coming to work And coming to work during the day going home at night getting married and producing new workers 0 Under capitalism we are buying your capacity to work for me We are making a formal exchange You will work for me for a certain of hours then go home I m buying you as a commodity and giving you money down the road Marx says one interesting aspect of this is that the peculiar feature of this commodity is that the value of a labor power and the value the labor creates are entirely different Labor power is a very special commodity 5 hours is necessary labor time 5 hours of surplus value which is where profit is made Exploitation of the worker happens in the surplus value time This is the secret capitalism profit is won as a normal part of the production process Capitalism is inherently exploitive Not good for human beings Moral condemnation comes into play here Class Struggle over the Working Day on the Production of Absolute and Relative Surplus Value Marx suggests that we can extend the workday and even pay the worker the same amount This is ABSOLUTE surplus value Relative surplus value keep the workday at 10 hours and introduce features to speed up productive process Cut down on amt of necessary labor time Worker is exploited in a different way here Workers were not too keen on Andrew Carnegie He exploited workers Technology and machinery speeds up production process and helps relative surplus value grow Technological Change and the Alleged fall in the Rate of Profit Variable capital Constant capital machinery Rate of profitquot ratio of surplus value to total capital SV CV sv surplus value c constant value v variable value sv cv 1 cv increases thereby reducing the rate of profit o If profit or surplus value is only produced by human beings who we can pay for 10 hours then they reproduce into however many workers capitalism as a whole will experience a fall in the rate of profit The Immiseration Issue Argument that more and more workers will be chronically unemployed because capitalism no longer needs them Huge body of excess workers Depresses wages Industrial Reserve Army There will always be excess workers so wages will never be high We will see a huge gap between a small of capitalists at the very top and the mass of everybody else Capitalists constantly fail of people at the very top will shrink Huge disparity between ruling class and everybody else Cyclical Crisis and the Breakdown of Capitalism Marx doesn t give us a dateline General suggestion that capitalism produces greater and greater cnses Circular motion of depression and successions Capitalism will reach some kind of endpoint Workers will realize that they can take over and no longer need capitalists There will be a political and social breakdown Commodity Fetishism Connected with the idea of alienation There is a kind of fetishism of commodities We presume that these commodities become equipped with their own sort of price tags We don t think about the production process works Capitalism produces an illusion of the value of particular commodities Social relationships are hidden Not visible when we go to the grocery store Appearance of intrinsic value 0 We treat other individuals as commodities what can I get out of you What can you do for me The Primary Accumulation of Capital 0 We ve got to have commodities to exchange for money we need commodities and money These things have to be created I need to purchase your labor power 0 Feudalism doesn t produce free workers 0 Done to cut back on common property 0 First phase capitalism involves shaking peasants loose of serfdom Involves a fair amount of coercion 0 At the very start that s when you see a great deal of violence Criticisms of the Labor Theory of Value 0 The Transformation Problem or the difficulty of moving from an abstract discussion of value to the real world determination of p ces 0 Many economists decided they wanted a theory of pricing 0 Many Marxists tried to solve the problem above Collins reading 0 Technology is going to eliminate the middle class 0 Technology is taking the service jobs which are the future of our economy 0 Government is cutting back we no longer need tons of positions Other Reading 0 People presume Soviet Union was embodiment of Marxism stage 0 Soviet Union is a socialistcommunist country 21115 601 PM 21115 601 PM
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