New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 7 Food & Agriculture Environmental Science Auburn ENVI-1020 Dr. Holm

by: Cory Garfunkel

Chapter 7 Food & Agriculture Environmental Science Auburn ENVI-1020 Dr. Holm ENVI 1020 - 001

Marketplace > Auburn University > Science > ENVI 1020 - 001 > Chapter 7 Food Agriculture Environmental Science Auburn ENVI 1020 Dr Holm
Cory Garfunkel
GPA 3.7

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

The whole Chapter 7 Enchilada! Should cover everything on tomorrow's quiz!
Fundamentals of Environmental Science
Robert F. Holm
Class Notes
food, foodproduction, Hunger, agriculture, pesticide, erosion
25 ?




Popular in Fundamentals of Environmental Science

Popular in Science

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cory Garfunkel on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENVI 1020 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Robert F. Holm in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Environmental Science in Science at Auburn University.


Reviews for Chapter 7 Food & Agriculture Environmental Science Auburn ENVI-1020 Dr. Holm


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/18/16
Chapter 7 Food & Agriculture  Globally, we need to be concerned about food quantity and quality to feed increasing numbers of hungry people in the world  Chronic Hunger & Food Security—within families that don’t get enough to eat, women & children almost always have the poorest diets  World Food Supplies: 1950-2000 o Richer countries: most common dietary problem is over-nutrition (obesity)  US leads developed world with 61% of adults at least somewhat overweight o Sub-Saharan Africa: food production has not kept pace with rapid pop. growth o Asia: most rapid increase in crop production alongside rapid pop. growth  World Food Problems o Pop. growth is surpassing food production in many areas of the world o Famine—large scale food shortages, massive starvation, social disruption, & economic chaos  Causes:  Environmental conditions, i.e. drought, insects, natural disasters  National politics—corruption, oppression  Armed Conflict  Economics—price gouging, poverty, landlessness o Protein Deficiency Diseases  Kwashiorkor or “Displaced Child”—mainly children with lack of high quality protein  Marasmus “To Waste Away”—Caused by diet low in both protein & calories  Major Food Sources o Crops  Wheat, rice, & maize are responsible for the majority of the world's nutrients  Potatoes, barley, oats & rye are staples in cool, moist climates  Cassava, sweet potatoes, other roots & tubers are staples in warm, wet climates  Sorghum & millet are drought resistant staples in dry regions of Africa  Fruits, vegetables, & vegetable oils contain high levels of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber & complex carbohydrates o Meat, Milk, & Seafood  Milk & meat are highly prized, but their distribution is inequitable  Developed countries make up 20% of world pop., but consume 80% of meat & milk production, whereas less developed countries produce 60% of world's milk and meat  ~90% of grain grown in N. Amer. feeds cattle, hogs, poultry, & other animals  Seafood—important protein source in many countries threatened by over- harvesting & habitat destruction o 51% of seafood catch comes from oceans; 99% of that comes from coastal areaspotentially serious coastal devastation  Food Production o Of the 50,000 species of edible plants, only ~30 crops feed the world & 14 produce 90% of our food o 4 crops—wheat, rice, corn & potato make up more of world’s total food prod. than all others combined o 8 species of domesticated livestock provide the majority of meat, eggs, milk, & cheese o ~2/3 of world’s population survives on a primarily vegetarian diet (Why?)  Recall Energy Chain (Primary vs. Secondary vs. Tertiary consumers) o Types of Agriculture/Food Production  Industrialized (high-input) agriculture (Pretty much all of US now)  Large quantities of single type of crop/livestock within country & for export  Plantation agriculture  Traditional subsistence agriculture  Produces enough crops or livestock for (subsistence) survival  Traditional intensive agriculture  Produce enough for a surplus & to feed a family  Nomadic Herding  Shifting Cultivation—Use land, let revert to natural vegetation, move on o Green Revolution  1 in developed countries (1950-70), then in Developing Countries (Post-1967)  Develop plant monocultures  High yields with additional fertilizers, pesticides, & water  Over time, yield normalizes and we lose the advantagePesticide treadmill  Multiple cropping (Crop rotation)  Environmental impacts (hopefully good)  Energy use (hopefully lower)  Social Consequences? Who does it benefit? o Increasing Food Production  Increase amount of agricultural land—Concerns?  Currently, 51% of land isn’t usable for grazing or farming, and almost half of usable land is being usedcan’t really use much more  Options o Clear tropical forests  Nutrient-poor soils don’t permit sustainable agriculture  Removal of valuable carbon sink & loss of biodiversity o Irrigate arid lands  Expensive damsdepletion of groundwater supplies  Profitable, sustainable expansion of cropland unlikely over next few decades  Switch to non-traditional crops—risks?  Cultivate less widely known plants and perennial plants o Reduce use of water, fertilizer, energy, & erosion  Eating Insects  Soil enrichment  Genetic engineering (Third Green Revolution)  Genetically modified foods (GMF) o Increase proportion of photosynthesis going to food  New Strains of traditional crops resistant to disease, insects, & drought  Fisheries  11 of world’s 15 major oceanic fishing areas fished at or over capacity for commercially valuable species & are in state of decline  Why? o Growing demand for seafood o Efficient, large-scale industrial fishing fleets o Degradation & destruction of coastal wetlands o Pollution of coastal waters  Aquaculture—The Blue Revolution o Fish Farming & Ranching  High yields in small volume of water  Increase yields by crossbreeding & genetic engineering o Limitations  Conversion of coastal wetlands to fish farms  Genetic pollution of natural fish populations by escapees  Contamination of nearby waters with waste & chemicals  Sustainable Agriculture  Efficient irrigation  Increased use of organic fertilizers  Biological pest control & integrated pest management  Soil conservation  Organic farming o Major Environmental Effects of Food Production  Biodiversity Loss  Loss/degradation of habitat via clearing grasslands & forests & draining wetlands  Fish kills from pesticide runoff  Killing of wild predators to protect livestock  Loss of genetic diversity from replacing thousands of wild crop strains with a few monoculture strains  Soil  Erosion, loss of fertility, salinization, waterlogging, desertification  All of US is either of some or serious concern regarding soil erosion  Water  Water waste & Aquifer depletion  Increased runoff and flooding from land cleared to grow crops  Sediment pollution from runoff  Surface & groundwater pollution from pesticides & fertilizers  Over-fertilization of lakes & slow-moving rivers from runoff of nitrates & phosphates from fertilizers, livestock wastes, & food processing wastes  Types: Sheet, rill, gully, streambank  Air Pollution  Greenhouse gas emissions & other pollutants from fossil fuel use, inorganic fertilizers, and livestock  Pollution from Pesticide Sprays  Human Health  Nitrates & pesticide residue in drinking water, food, & air  Contamination of water with diseases from livestock waste  Bacterial contamination of meat  Soil—complex mix of weathered minerals, partially decomposed organic matter, & living organisms o We depend on soil for life, yet tend to take this living resource for granted o U.S. has > 20,000 different soil types that vary due to influences of parent material, time, topography, climate, & organisms o About 30-50% of the world's croplands are losing topsoil faster than it can be replaced o Renewable resource, but building good soil is slow process (500 yrs or more per inch topsoil) o Parts (Top-down)  O-Horizon—Surface litter: freshly fallen leaves & organic debris & partially decomposed organic matter (PDOM)  A-Horizon—Topsoil: PDOM (humus), living organisms, & some inorganic minerals  E-Horizon—Zone of Leaching: dissolved or suspended materials move downward  B-Horizon—Subsoil: accumulation of Fe, Al, & humus compounds, & clay leached down from A and E horizons  C-Horizon—Parent Material: Partially broken-down inorganic minerals  R-Horizon—Bedrock: Impenetrable layer  Causes of Erosion o Intensive farming practices  Row crops leave soil exposed, weed free-fields, removal of windbreaks, no crop- rotation or resting periods, continued monocultures o Construction sites  Solutions: Soil Conservation o Conventional tillage, conservation tillage, cropping methods, windbreaks, land classification  More Environmental Impacts o > 50% of world’s cropland is used to feed livestock o Over-grazing is the major cause of desertification of arid & semi-arid lands o Methane emissions of cattle o Cattle crowded into feedlots require large doses of antibiotics o Biological pests reduce crop yields & spoil as much as 50% of crops harvested annually  Crops grown without synthetic fertilizers or pesticides tend to have lower yield, but have lower operating costs & less ecological damage  Pesticides—Use 2.5 million tons/yr, ~ 1 lb./person on Earth o Chemicals that kill undesirable organisms o Insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, antibiotics, rodenticides, desiccants, plant regulators o First generation (1500’s-1940’s)  Primarily natural substances—sulfur, lead, arsenic, mercury  Plant extracts: nicotine, pyrethrum which are degradable o Second generation (1940’s-Present)  Primarily synthetic organic compounds  Broad- and narrow-spectrum agents  Target and non-target species o Used for human well-being, regular component of ag. systems  Quantity & quality of food supply would go down without them (price would ↑ too)  In US, >600 Million kg/yr at a cost of $5,000,000  72% used in ag, 7% in home lawn/garden  Insecticides—36% of use in ag, 50% in home lawn/garden  Newer ones are becoming safer & being used at lower rates (still a problem) o Problems  Lots of species now resistant though  Can kill non-target & natural control species  Can cause increase in other pest species  Pesticide Treadmill—add, kill, genetic resistance gets passed on, add more, build resistance, etc.  Don’t stay put, can harm wildlife, & have a wide range of human health threats o Ideal Pesticide  Kill only target pests & harm nothing else  Break down quickly  Not cause genetic resistance  More cost-effective than doing nothing o Other Ways to Control Pests  Economic Threshold  Adjusting cultivation practices  Use genetically resistant plants  Biological pest control  Biopesticides  Insect birth control  Hormones & Pheromones  Ionizing radiation


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.