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Chapter 21 - Nuclear Chemistry

by: Alex Bess

Chapter 21 - Nuclear Chemistry CHEM:1120 Principles of Chemistry II, Yakov Letsky, Alexei Tavinski, Amy Strathman

Alex Bess
GPA 3.87
Principles of Chemistry II
Yakov Letsky, Alexei Travinski, Amy Strathman

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Principles of Chemistry II
Yakov Letsky, Alexei Travinski, Amy Strathman
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Bess on Sunday February 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM:1120 Principles of Chemistry II, Yakov Letsky, Alexei Tavinski, Amy Strathman at University of Iowa taught by Yakov Letsky, Alexei Travinski, Amy Strathman in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 108 views.

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Date Created: 02/15/15
Chapter 21 Nuclear Chemistry NEW TERMS Nuclear energy changes in the nucleus of atoms changing them into different atoms Elementary particles protons and neutrons and electrons Nuclide the nucleus of an atom having a speci c atomic number Isotopes elements with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons same element different weight Radioactivity the spontaneous emission of particles of radiation from atomic nuclei Nucleon proton or neutron elementary particles Radionuclide a nuclide that is radioactive Radioisotope an atom containing a radionuclide Alpha decay a nuclear emission that involves the loss of an alpha particle Hez Beta decay nuclear emission that involves the loss of a beta particle electron Positron decay nuclear emission that involves the emission of a positron quotantiparticlequot of electron fe Electron capture nuclear reaction where the nucleus of an atom draws in an electron from an orbital of the lowest energy level turning a proton into the emission of an xray Gamma emission nuclear emission that involves the radiation of highenergy gamma photons from an excited nucleus Nuclear transmutation the induced conversion of one nucleus into another where atoms of one element can be changed into atoms of another element by radioactive decay or nuclear emissionsreactions Transuranium Elements elements immediately after uranium discovered by bombarding isotopes with neutrons Bombardment throwing neutrons at a large particle creating a larger more radioactive less stable particle Linear Accelerator uses alternating voltages to change the charges in a series of tubes meant to use kinetic energies of particles to make energy Cyclotron uses electromagnets to give a particle a spiral path to make energy Synchrotron uses a synchronously increasing magnetic eld to make the path circular similar to a cyclotron Radioactive Decay how a substance decays at a rate due to it s radioactivity always rstorder usually by emission of one or a few particles or photons to become a slightly lighter nucleus Halflife the time it takes for a substance to decay by 50 Nuclear Fission energy derived from the decay of a radioactive substance usually from the decay of large nuclei Nuclear Fusion when light nuclei are heated to very high temperatures forming a heavier nucleus and therefore releasing large amounts of energy Excitation nonionizing radiation of relatively low energy interacts with an atom of a substance which absorbs some of the energy and then reemits it Ionization ionizing radiation collides with an atom energetically enough to dislodge an electron Ionizing Radiation alpha beta gamma and xrays that can eject valence electrons and create ions in biological tissue Free Radicals can initiate a chain of reactions producing damaged biomolecules Mass Defect Am the mass difference between a nucleus and its individual nucleons Nuclear Binding Energy AE the energy required to separate a nucleus into its individual nucleons Electron Volt eV energy an electron acquires when it moves through a potential difference of 1 Volt 1602x103919 J Critical mass the mass required to achieve a chain reaction nuclear ssion Supercritical mass a mass in excess of the critical mass Tokamak the torus doughnut shaped magnetic containment vessel for suspending plasma Balancing Nuclear Equations When a nuclide decays it forms a nuclide of lower energy and the excess energy is carried off by the emitted radiation TotalA TotalA Total Z Total ZP r Oducts Reactants 2 vaes of Emissions Radioactive decay is when a nuclide of one element spontaneously decays into a nuclide of a different element 1 x decay involves the loss of an alpha particles from a nucleus For each alpha particle A decreases by 4 and Z decreases by 2 Every element is heavier than 82Pb as well as a few lighter ones exhibits alpha decay amt gt2anqu 2 B decay involves the ejection of a beta particle or an electron from the nucleus Conversion of a neutron into a proton which remains in the nucleus and a beta particle which is expelled immediately 12Cgt1 NB 3 Positron decay involves the emission of a positron from the nucleus Positrons are the quotantiparticlequot of electrons Involves the conversion of a proton into a neutron 1C gt1B e 4 Electron Capture occurs when the nucleus of an atom draws in an electron from an orbital of the lowest energy level This involves the conversion of a proton into a neutron 2Fee gtMnhvx ray 5 y decay involves the radiation of high energy gamma photons from an excited nucleus 0 ZZSU 233Th3Heov Particles of Nuclear Stability 393 Why are only some isotopes in radioactive For smaller nuclei i z lt21 stable nuclei have a neutronproton ratio close to 11 As nuclei get larger it takes a larger number of neutrons to stabilize the nucleus 265 isotopes are stable and all lie in a belt of stability Nuclei with gt83 39 1 11th til neutmi39tti 11 netirtrtzirltiii protons are all radioactive 2n f 39 Plum T tim Magic numbers of Protons 2 8 39 20 28 50 82 d ii iii Ei39i 3n iii ll an Fiji till Magic numbers of Neutrons 2 Number tiiptiziiiiiii 8 20 28 5082 126 184 Even numbers of protons or neutrons are favored The type of radioactive decay is somewhat predictable Above the Belt of Stability too many neutrons l beta emission Below the Belt of Stability too few neutrons l positron emission or electron capture Nuclei with gt83 protons always radioactive l alpha emission Tendencies of Nuclear Reactions Nuclei with Z gt 85 tend to alpha decay Nuclei with high neutronproton ratios tend to beta decay Heavy nuclei with low neutronproton ratios tend to undergo electron capture Light Nuclei with low neutronproton ratios tend to undergo positron emission Nuclear Transmutations Research into atomic structure led to the discovery of the neutron and production of arti cial radioisotopes Laterled to highenergy bombardment and particle accelerations Over 1000 radioisotopes have been produced In 1933 the rst arti cial radioisotope was produced by Marie Curie Bombardment Reactions Use of neutrons Most synthetic isotopes used in medicine are prepared by bombarding neutrons at a particle which won t repel the neutral particle Think about transuranium elements Larger elements atomic number higher than 110 were made by colliding large atoms with nuclei of light elements with high energy Particle Accelerators lnvented in the 19305 to impart high kinetic energies to particles by placing them in an electric eld usually in combination with a magnetic eld These could be using a linear accelerator cyclotron or synchrotron H39li radio frequency source Euecuetecl drift tubes Peruquot cle ecurce Linear Accelerainr Rates of Radioactive Decay Radioactive nuclei decay at a characteristic rate independent of the chemical substance AN At kN Where kis the decay constant and N is the number of radioactive nuclei The decay by time equations are rate law equations for a rst order reaction Decay rate A 1n Z kt t1l2 6 28 of a sample of nitrogen17 decays in 1975 What is the isotope s halflife in seconds 9200 1n1000 k197s k167l s t 62 2 167 The Mass Defect and Energy Equations Energy derived from the decay of a radioactive substance AEZAmg Where AE is the energy equivalent of change in mass or the Nuclear Binding Energy Am is the mass defect and c is the speed of light 30e8 ms AmL2mproducts 2mreactantsWZ 415s Unit Con versions for Rates of Radioactive Decay 1 Bq 1 disintegration per An 850kg person is exposed to 469 rad second dps How many joules did they absorb 1 Ci 37elo Bq 001Gy01Jkgo 1 rad 01 Gy 469rad lrad le 85 Okg 399 1 rem 01 Sv 1 Sv 1 Jkg Radiation in the Environment and 1 Gy 1 Jkg tissue Living Systems Nuclear changes can cause chemical changes in surrounding matter Emissions do affect electrons of nearby atoms in two ways excitation and ionization


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