Phenomenological Theory PSY0160
Popular in Psychology of Personality
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matt Leonard on Sunday February 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY0160 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Dr. Lausberg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
Reviews for Phenomenological Theory
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/15/15
oA philosophi Phenomenological Theory ca movement that describes the formal structure of the obiects of awareness and of awareness itself oThe study of the development of human consciousness and selfawareness 0 Major gure Carl R s ogers PersonCentered 19021987 Humanist Oak Park Illinois rural area Went to school for agriculture changed his studies to the Ministry oTheoIogicaI Studies 0 Doctoral work in clinical and educational psych Child Guidance Clinic Rochester NY 1939 Clinical Treatment of the Problem Chid Ohio State University 1940 o Offered fu professorship after release of his book 0 Insisted study of psychotherapy oAudio Tape Sessions unheard of w consent 0 Disagreed with much of the education system 1942 Counseling and Psychotherapy 1944 United Services Organization Counseling Center 1945 University of Chicago Counseling Center 1951 Client Centered Therapy 1957 University of Wisconsin 1963 Center for the Studies of the Person La Jolla CA Attempt to apply his work to political processes Opposite of many Freudian beliefs 0 Believes man is rational and controlled works toward goas Dies 1987 0 Received letter on day of death for Nobel Peace Prize Nomination PersonCentered Theory 0 Perception most important How we make sense of our environment sensory information Phenomenal Field The Field of Experience All that goes on in the moment that is potentially available to awareness 0 Internal and External 0Truy known only by the person Subjective selective and incomplete 0 Can only pay attention to so much at a time o Psych Limitations only want to be aware of some things Choose to ignore certain aspects 0 May or may not correspond to what is actually going on The more closely it aligns with reality the greater psychological health one has 0 Importance of Authenticity Open accepting of full range of emotions oSelfActualizing Tendency Primary motivating drive lnvolves all aspects of the individual Tendency to move toward completion or ful llment of potentials SelfActualization is the goal o Ongoing process always striving to be the best version of yourself 0 Fully experience all emotions 0 Facilitates personal growth 0 Physiological emotional conscious unconscious 0 Self Conscious System process Stable yet changing The person one perceives himself to be 0 How we see ourselves 0 Based on past experience present inputs and future expectancies 0 May or may not be aligned with reality and what is going on Distinguish between yourself and everyone else Personal responsibility for one s actions Core true self at deep and intuitive level Also a nonintuitive self 0 Requires considerable thought 0 Actual Self the self we believe we are now 0 Ideal Self the self concept one would most like to possess potential future self I What would you want to be like The closer the Actual Self is to the Ideal Self the healthier the person is can still progress but they move forward together Congruence and lncongruence 0 Match Harmony 0 Mismatch Anxiety 0 Congruence Accuracy between experience awareness and communication People seek consistency between sense of self how they view themselves and everyday experience what they feel Alignment of Real Self and Ideal Self o lncongruence Differences between awareness experience and communication 0 Experience what s really happening 0 Communication what we re expressing 0 Awareness what we perceive When Real Self and Ideal Self are not aligned Vulnerability increases with levels of incongruence o More vulnerable when unaware of discrepancies 0 Anxiety and threat when person becomes aware of incongruence 0 Step toward psychological health Defensive Processes 0Denial 0 When an event occurs and is outside or below level of awareness outside conscious awareness 0 Event may never reach conscious awareness if inconsistent with self 0 Causes disequilibrium 0Distortion o Aware of experience but reshapeddistorted to t into existing selfconcept Symbolized o Consciously and freely admitted into the self structure 0 Experiences are nonthreatening and consistent with the self I Growth and Development Small children exhibit a high degree of congruence o Prevents accumulation of emotional baggage that many adolescents and adults carry 0 How other people treat and think about you affects sense of self 0 Growth is possible throughout life 0 Concerned with psychological environment provided by caregivers 0 Does it set the stage for optimal growth upport selfactualization oes the individual experience congruence The more likely the child develops in a health way Individual must make contact with another person 0 Can be positive or negative 0 Provides experience for development as a person Positive Regard oA basic psychological need to be loved like or accepted by another person 0 Essential to develop own Positive SelfRegard Positive SelfRegard 0 Experience of prizing accepting or valuing oneseW 0 Positive Regard is prerequisite Unconditional Positive Regard o The other person loves like accepts you no matter what 0 Despite disappointment Conditions of Worth 0 Loved and accepted only if meet others expectations and approval conditional loveacceptance 0 Become criterion by which we accept or reject ourexpedences SelfActualizing o Tendency toward growth and reaching potential Simple complex organism Dependence l independence Rigid change and freedom Enhancing pleasure and satisfaction Can never nish selfactualizing Fully functioning person Indicates optimal development and maturity Openness and awareness to all experiences good or bad Live fully and richly Trust in own organism Feel free to make own choices act on own behalf Creative and constructive Can be challenging face difficulties oS oD 00000000 00 ClientCentered Therapy PersonCentered Therapy 0 Characteristics of the therapy environment Safe private comfortable place 0 Qualities of the therapist O The presence and behavior are part of the therapy Unconditional Positive Regard Value client genuinely like and care for Nonjudgmental Empathic listening see things the way the other person sees them Re ective listening Transparency Genuineness Congruence Therapist needs a clear sense of self Presence fully present and attentive Facilitate congruence and selfactualization of client 0 The client is the expert only heshe knows what truly goes on in their headenvironment Assessment of SelfSelfConcept o QSort Technique Stephenson 1953 O O 100 Cards each contains speci c personality quality Organized high selfesteem outgoing etc Shuf ed given to person Look at card determine if very much not at all like me on scale 0 Only a few amount can be extreme values to make apparent differences Majority in middle Bell Shaped Curve Sort based on how you see yourself and your life today RealActual Self Shuf ed then performed again for ldeal Self Compare quantitatively Actual Self vs ldeal Self Can be used pre and post therapy to determine impact of therapy 0 Have the Actual and ldeal Selves become more aHgned Semantic Differential Osgood 1957 Developed to capture the meanings of words and individual interpretations Rogers modi ed and repurposed Subject rates quotmy selfquot or quotmy ideal selfquot on items presented on a polar adjective scale Differences in meaning in words Evaluation of Rogers O O O O 0 O O O O o Existentialism Database Valued data and went to great lengths to collect data Not much cultural diversity of samples Systematic Not as systematic as other theories Information within theory is systematic and related Testable Actual and ldeal Selves can be tested How to measure selfactualization or potential Comprehensiveness Does not address biology evolution etc Application Positive review of therapy Applicable in many situations Abraham Maslow Human Potential Movement Hierarchy of Needs De cit Needs in order of importance typically must be met to progress to next need Physiological Needs Food water Safety Needs Belonging Needs 0Motivated to feel connected to others Esteem Needs Achievement satisfaction respect from others Personal effort Being Needs SelfActualization Positive view of mankind Be yourself selfactualization 0 Peak experiences Driving force Intense pleasurable rare lifechanging experiences are important in personality development Lead towards development of selfactualization Uniqueness of the individual quotHuman Conditionquot Day to day life challenges Awareness of death Death anxiety gives meaning to life Find meaning in life Viktor Frankl Existentialism 0 Search for meaning freedom and responsibility 0 Spent 3 years in Concentration Camps lost entire family 0 Man 5 Search For Meaning 0Logotherapy 0 Help client nd meaning in life 0 D S M Despair Suffering Meaning 0 Positive Psychology Movement Modern Movement Seligman and Peterson 0Cassifying human strengths 0 Wisdom courage love justice temperance transcendence Csikszentmihalyi 0quotFlowquot 0 Stateexperience that re ects a match of skillspersonal qualities and a challenge 0 High level of focused attention and immersion 0 Strong degree of investment in activity Temporary loss of selfconsciousness The more Flow can be incorporated into life the more psychologically healthy an individual can be
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'