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2/10, 2/12 notes

by: Alec Greenspoon

2/10, 2/12 notes KIN 421

Alec Greenspoon
GPA 3.65
advanced systemic physiology
Dr. Perry

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About this Document

All notes taken from the lecture as well as class discussion
advanced systemic physiology
Dr. Perry
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alec Greenspoon on Sunday February 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 421 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Perry in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see advanced systemic physiology in Physics 2 at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 02/15/15
421 week of 29 29 02102015 Crossbridge head myosin head has attached to active site on the actin lament Myosin head refers to the unattached state First partial hydrolysis energy is used to move the head back and attach it Later hydrolysis has P come off and ADP Training changes ber types Differences in rate of speed of hydrolysis of ATP across different isoforms of ber types Heavy chains can be hybrid 0 Never seen 1 with 2b Can only stain for fast and slow isoforms Training for strength and power 0 Combination of fast twitch bers increase in 2a usually 812 reps Decrease in 2b bers a power training will increase 2b bers low reps endurance training increases type 1 bers sedentary lifestyle causes reduction in type 1 bers and increase in type 2b 0 lose mitochondria fatigable less oxidative resistance training typically leads to an increase in type 2a 0 do myosin ATPase isoforms change in agreement with the heavy chains 0 Yes can have type 1 ber with different ATPase isoform which usually corresponds with 2b Isoform usually similar though would have partial type 1 0 Light chains don t always impact heavy chains 0 Most people are 5050 light to heavy Fast twitch bers produce more force 0 More fast twitch more force and it is generated quickly compared to slow twitch As force produced increases velocity decreases 0 Optimal percentage of MVC to generate most speed and force 4050 Motor neurons see slide 0 Alpha motor neuron that services skeletal muscle 0 Slow twitch bers are more easily recruited o Slimmer motor axon slower conductance Fibers are dictated by motor neuron that innervates it o Takes time to change bers 0 Fast twitch bers have calcium released quickermore easily 0 Due to more extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum Training 0 Low force high speed training type 1 0 Increase intensity to get type 2b bers 0 Linesman lost power with aerobic training Hypertrophy of type 1 bers Size principle 0 Degree of force development is appropriate for the task at hand 0 Guarantees that the least powerful motor units are recruited rst 0 Strongest are recruited last 0 High threshold fast twitch bers 0 Metabolically costly use more glucose 0 Type 1 produce more ATPmole of glucose 0 Less costly to the body 0 Animals are able to bypass slow twitch bers only recruit fast 0 Unidirectional movements 0 Recruit heaver ber types as needed 0 Both ber types are likely recruited simultaneously in sports 0 Quick movements Increase strength 0 Increased rate coding ring of motor unit 0 Stimulate ber again before it can return to baselinerelax increased tension of motor unit 0 Multiple motor unit summation o Recruit faster ber types as needed 0 Amount of tension derived from a motor unit dictated by 0 Number of muscle bers in unit most important Slow twitch with 150 bers will be stronger than fast twitch with 20 bers even though on their own fast twitch is stronger 0 Size of bers 0 Tension per cross sectional area 0 Amount of tension generated by a whole muscle 0 Number of motor units in that muscle 0 Fiber type 0 Asynchronous ring of motor units 0 Treppe effect doing enough contractions to release enough calcium for later heavier contractions Essentially warming up increases lose calcium and helps with ensuing contractions First contraction is not as strong as later contractions lnitial training improvements Neural improvements rst 0 Learn to recruit more motor units 0 Activate them more frequently Training programs 0 68 RM increases 2a and decreases 2b 0 13 RM increases 2b 0 Body builders damage muscles more bigger muscles upon recovery supercompensation Discontinuous regeneration 0 Power lifters are strongest but not the biggest Due to lower volume less damage so less growth 0 More contact between actin and myosin laments along with increased xbridge cycling translates into greater hypertrophy Application of muscle physiology 0 See de nitions on slide work power RM etc 0 Absolute muscular endurance is the same for everyone De nite overlap for strength and endurance o 25kgs is normal for training intensity Increasing muscle protein synthesis Concentric and eccentric contractions build muscle 0 Eccentric does more damage increases muscle mass more 0 Fluids are important for driving water into the muscle and driving protein synthesis 0 NO increases cyclic gmp which perfuses into smooth muscle of the vessel and causes vasodilation Increasing skeletal muscle hypertrophy see slide Supercompensation Increase AA pool following exercise by eating carbs and protein 0 Whey protein important because it contains leucine Most important AA for muscle growth Carbs cause insulin surge anabolic Hormones o Testosterone and growth hormone More reps increase testosterone Shorter intervals increase lactic acid a Increase cAMP which increases growth hormone and testosterone 21215 Adaptations of strength chaining Post workout bodybuilders Decreased glucose Decreased G6P Decreased aglycerophosphate Decreased ATP Decreased TGs Olympicpowerlifters o More substrate stores but lack enzymatic activity to break them down 0 O O O O Training characteristics 0 Women and men respond equally to training 0 Light weight does not have high enough load to increase hypertrophy Burn more calories during recovery from resistance training more intense than endurance training Endurance training burns more during exercise less after Hypertrophy Volume dependent Less total lifts less damage less supercompensation less hypertrophy Free weights involve use of stabilizers and are better for increasing mass Lower recovery with more work increased lactic acid 0 Increases testosterone and GH Best combination is higher testosterone to cortisol ratio 0 Both go up with weight training 0 Volume increases testosterone as well as less rest Endurance training does not increase testosterone as much as weight lifting but does increase cortisol catabolic 0 Not a favorable testosteronecortisol ratio don t get as big Hormonal responses do not play as big of a role in hypertrophy as damage to the muscle Eccentric training causes more damagehypertrophy o More stress on myosin heads and actin lament Larger growth 0 Recruit less motor units during lengthening phase so force is spread over a smaller area more stress Speed and power Combo of speed and resistance training works best Problem with training to failure 0 Fatigued muscle will produce less force and at a slower rate Not bene cial for sports Ballistic training is mainly recommended for sports 0 Rate of force development is very important 0 Fast sports train at fast speeds o Slower velocity will recruit more fast twitch bers heavier load 0 Important for establishing a baseline 0 Then work on neural activation via high speed training Can resistance training help endurance Increased 1RM lowers the demand of motor units recruited Factors effecting aerobic performance 0 V02 max 0 Lactate threshold 0 Running economy most important 0 Resistance training barely increases V02 max lt 5 0 Running economy oxygen used at given velocity Slower athletes had more improvement in oxygen consumption 0 Strength training to improve endurance performance can endurance performance go up without changes in V02 max 0 Yes faster performance or can go for longer Running economy Stiffer athletes are faster 0 More stretch response in tendons 0 Reduced touch time on the ground leaves more room in relaxation phase 0 Can extract more oxygen 0 Strength training will help with speed of muscle recruitment 0 Makes u faster Concurrent strength and endurance training see slide will compromise strength gains to allow for endurance gains Frequency of strength training is most important factor Recruiting more motor units improved running economy Training to failure 0 Do have signi cant gains but overtraining becomes a big factor 0 Will ultimately have negative effects Periodization Varies intensity and volume over course of weeks 0 Linear o Phases together are a mesocycle o Macrocycle is the year long program made of mesocycles Microcycle is actual training programs weekly changes lntensity and volume have inverse relationship 0 Seems to be best way to increase power strength and performance Core training lmproves body control and helps peripheral muscles More stable platform Reduces risk of injury Helps proprioception 0 Get a feel for what movement is needed Everything goes down with aging O


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