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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Rothfeld on Sunday February 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY110 at University of Miami taught by Professor Gillis in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/15/15
Chapter 6 Learning Six Different Kinds of Learning 1 HabituationlSensitization o Habituation if we see something we ve never seen we react to it but if nothing bad happens we stop reacting if you put a coin on your hand you ll feel the change in pressure at first then not notice it because you habituate o Sensitization If a novel stimulus is presented and something bad occurs the animal may respond more strongly in the future 2 Classical Conditioning Pavlovian Conditioning Associative Learning an association forms between two stimuli ex Pavlov put a dog in a harness and was collecting saliva in a tube connected to dog s mouth He presented food to the dog causing salivation then measuring how much the dog salivates They ran into a problem because if the man who fed the dog came into the room the dog would salivate at the man because he associates the man with the food Unconditioned Stimulus food in the mouth Neutral Stimulus tuning fork which will produce saliva as well as the food 0 Learning Curve the steeper the learning curve the easier of a time the subject had with that job the shallower the learning curve the person had more trouble with thatjob o Backward Conditioning puff the meat powder at the dog from given example above then ring the bell so if later you ring the bell it won t do anything if the bell is rung before it can classically condition because it warns the dog that food is coming 0 Extinct Training if you pair two things meat powder and bell then stop pairing themstop linking the two stimuli gradually dog will stop salivating to bell o Spontaneous Recovery give the dog a week break then put him in same study again and he will start to salivate at the bell o Generalization applying previous learning to a new situation but the learning has to be similar enough if you were to train a dog with a specific tuning fork what happens if after the animal is perfectly trained you use a different tuning fork it will still salivate because of generalization it does not distinguish between different forks o Discrimination failing to generalize because situation is different enough 3 Operant Conditioning Instrumental Conditioning Skinnerian Conditioning operant has a reward or punishment or both behavior is instrumental in determining the outcome could be good bad or nothing 0 Thorndike and his Puzzle Box a cat is in a cage and its hungry it sees the food outside and wants the food but cannot reach it the cat will start to engage in random trialanderrorbehavior he will push and stand up and try to get out of the puzzle box he accidently steps on the lever door opens and he gets the food 0 satisfiers if cats hungry and he is given food he will be satisfied 0 annoyers when door opens the cat is shot with something and might be annoyed Law of Effect any behavior followed by a reward is more likely to occur in the future and happen faster and any behavior followed by a punishment is less likely to occur in the future RewardReinforcement makes the behavior of interest more likely to occur in the future Punishment makes behavior of interest less likely to occur in future Negative Reinforcement taking away something bad reducing someone s probation because they have been good Primary and Secondary Reinforcement naturally reinforcing things people need to survive secondary have value because they enable you to get things you need money Skinner s Operant Conditioning Chamber took the puzzle box and turned it into an automated cage could be a cageroomsomeone s office there needs to be a manipulandum that the animalperson can do and you will be reinforced for working it ex human in an officer is put at a typewriter and rewarded for using it correctly 0 the manipulandum is the lever Schedules of Reinforcement I continuous reinforcement constantly rewarded I partial reinforcement result in more resistance to extinction 0 fixed ratio 0 variable ratio 0 fixed interval eg paid once a week or once a month 0 variable interval Resistance to Extinction no point in teaching people if you think that education will extinct eg you give a kid an allowance to do chores you don t want them to stop doing chores once they get to college because they aren t around the house being paid to do so the more reinforcement the quicker the learning if we are taught something in first grade we hope it will generalize into the second grade even without the rewards reinforcement and that you ll keep those skills throughout your education have your behavior persist with partial reinforcement NOT based on of reinforced trials based on the of nonreinforced trials Shaping Successive Approximation takes a long time to shape successive behavior rewarding approximations along the way successfully a teacher will expect more from a student as they continue along in school ex one answer might be appropriate in high school physics but not in the levels to proceed Chaining string a number of separate behaviors together may shape one behavior and shape another behavior maybe something the animal does on its own or doesn t Superstitious Behavior as Reinforcement Approaches Random any behavior followed by reward will occur more often when the reinforcement is random people will develop superstitious beliefs ex when the Aztecs made the sun come up by sacrificing virgins they believe that the sun comes up because of their rituals o AcquisitionExtinctionDiscrimination and Generalization apply also Applications to behavior problems 0 Behavior Modification therapy behavioral therapy is using learning theory to improve behavior going in for treatment of a phobia need to improve a child s behavior in school treat depression etc o Token Economy Biofeedback providing electrical feedback about some biological function eg a machine that tells you your blood pressure Behavioral techniques based on operant conditioning eg you will get X number of minutes on the xbox if you have good behavior 4 Observational Learning Social Learning Imitative Learning Modeling one animal or person observes another doing something and learns by observing there has to be a model social means 2 people interacting 5 Insight Learning Kohler s apes learning by thinking 6 Taste Flavor Aversion if you eat something that makes you sick you probably won t eat it again we do this because we know we ll be kept safe if we don t eat it again Therapy 1 2 Phobias Watson Counterconditioning Systematic Desensitization someone has a phobia of snakes it s interfering with their lives and they won t go outside because of it they go to a therapist to be treated and the therapist will say to imagine the most fearful thing you can think of involving a snake The patient talks about it and then the therapist says imagine something least scary about the snake and he suggest a stuffed pink fluffy snake line up the scariest to least scariest snake examples starting with least fearful this helps you relax and learn how to deal with the snake headtotoe Aversive Conditioning primarily for bad habits if it s painful and punishing it ll help you stop doing that thing Drug Addiction people are not only addicted to the drug but things associated with that drug you need to focus on the cothingmusic friends etc that you have associated with that drug you need to not avoid those things but talk about in therapy how you will continue to go through your normal lifestyle without that drug
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