Anatomy and Physiology - Week 4 Notes
Anatomy and Physiology - Week 4 Notes VS 3014
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to VS 3014 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Sharon Grace in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology in Animal Science and Zoology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Learning Objectives Physiology of the Muscular System Ch. 8 1. Define and/or locate: a. Prefixes i. “Macro-“: large b. Suffixes c. Anatomy/microanatomy i. Sarcolemma: outer membrane of muscle fiber ii. Sarcomere: fundamental unit of contraction/distance from Z line to Z line iii. Myofibril: contractile organelles of muscle iv. Sarcoplasmic reticulum: fluid-filled system of tubules encircling each myofibril where calcium is stored for contraction v. T-tubule: sarcolemma invaginations; conduct action potential vi. Z-line: dense line that bisects each I band vii. A band or zone: darker zone/overlapping thick and thin filaments viii. I band or zone: light band/ thin filaments only ix. Intercalated disks: contact points between adjacent cardiac cells x. Actin: globular protein/ 2 long stands winded around each other (pearls) xi. Troponin: protein embedded in tropomyosin strand (barbs) xii. Tropomyosin: protein stand which wraps around actin (wire) xiii. Myosin: “golf-club” shaped protein xiv. Neuron: basic information processing unit of the nervous system xv. Axon: information transmitting part of the neuron xvi. Synapse: function junction for information exchange xvii. Synaptic cleft: narrow gap at a synapse xviii. Neuromuscular junction: junction between axon terminal of a motor neuron and the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscle fiber xix. Neurotransmitter – Acetylcholine xx. Motor unit: a single motor (voluntary, somatic) neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it supplies d. Physiology i. Syncytium ii. Action potential: an electrical impulse or signal iii. Membrane potential: difference in electrical charge between the inside and outside of a cell-membrane iv. Depolarization: application of a stimulus to the membrane switches polarity of membrane v. Repolarization: cell membrane recovers 2. Name the 3 basic types of muscle tissue and areas where they are located in the body 1. Skeletal 2. Cardiac 3. Smooth 3. Distinguish the basic types of muscle by: a. Presence/absence of striations - Striated has visible streaks or “striations” when viewed with a high level of magnification - Non-striated has no visible lines b. Voluntary vs involuntary control - Voluntary: controlled by somatic nervous system - Involuntary: “autonomic” (unconscious) control c. Branching fibers vs non-branching fibers - Branching: cardiac, fiber branch to form network and connect intercalated disks. - Non-branching: skeletal 4. Give, in general terms, the function and nature of type I and type II muscle fibers - Type I Contract slowly but sustain long periods of activity “Slow twitch” “Endurance fibers”/draft horse - Type II Contract quickly with great force, subject to fatigue “Fast twitch” Quarter horse 5. Give, in general terms, the function of the “somatic” and “automatic” nervous systems - Somatic: conscious control (skeletal) - Automatic: unconscious control (cardiac, smooth) 6. Name the protein components of the thick and thin filaments - Thick: myosin - Thin: actin, tropomyosin, troponin 7. Discuss the process of skeletal muscle contraction - Calcium floods into the muscle cell binding with troponin allowing actin and myosin to bind. The actin and myosin cross tropomyosin and bind and contract.
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