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Anatomy and Physiology 2

by: Ashlee Wilson

Anatomy and Physiology 2 BIOL 2020

Marketplace > University of Memphis > Biology > BIOL 2020 > Anatomy and Physiology 2
Ashlee Wilson
University of Memphis
GPA 3.3

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Chapter 25 notes
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Martha Brown
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlee Wilson on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2020 at University of Memphis taught by Martha Brown in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 04/18/16
A&P Chapter 25 Metabolism and Nutrition Metabolic Reactions  Metabolism refers to all of the chemical reactions taking place in the body.  Reactions that break down complex molecules into simpler ones are catabolic (decomposition).  Reactions that combine simple molecules to make complex molecules are anabolic (synthesis).  Metabolism results from the balance of anabolic and catabolic reactions. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the energy molecule that couples the two types of reactions. Energy Transfer  Oxidation-Reduction reactions are one category of reactions important in energy transfer.  Oxidation involves the removal of electrons from an atom or molecule. An example is the conversion of lactic acid to pyruvic acid.  Reduction involves the addition of electrons to a molecule. An example is the conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid.  When a substance is oxidized, the liberated hydrogen atoms are transferred by 2 coenzymes to another compound. These are nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD).  Oxidation and reduction are always coupled. That is why the two reactions together are called oxidation-reduction or redox reactions.  Some of the energy released during oxidation reactions is captured when ATP is formed. A phosphate group is added to ADP (phosphorylation) along with energy to form ATP. A high-energy bond is indicated by a “squiggle.” Carbohydrate Metabolism  Carbohydrate metabolism is, in reality, mostly glucose metabolism. The body’s use of glucose depends on the needs of cells. These needs include: ATP production, Amino acid synthesis, Glycogen synthesis, & Triglyceride synthesis.  Glucose must pass through the plasma membrane to be used by the cell. Facilitated diffusion makes this happen. In most body cells, GluT molecules (transporters) perform this.  Insulin increases the insertion of GluT4 transporters into the plasma membrane increasing the rate of facilitated diffusion.  The oxidation of glucose to produce ATP is cellular respiration. Four sets of reactions are involved: Glycolysis, Formation of acetyl coenzyme A, Krebs cycle reactions, & Electron transport chain reactions.  Glycolysis is the process whereby a 6-carbon glucose molecule is split into two 3-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid.  Glycolysis involves 10 reactions.  What happens to the pyruvic acid depends on the availability of oxygen.  If oxygen is scarce (anaerobic conditions), pyruvic acid is reduced by the addition of 2 hydrogen atoms to form lactic acid.  If oxygen is plentiful (aerobic conditions), most cells convert pyruvic acid to acetyl coenzyme A.  The Krebs cycle is also known as the citric acid cycle. This cycle occurs in the matrix of mitochondria and consists of eight reactions.  The electron transport chain is a series of electron carriers in the mitochondria. Each carrier in the chain is reduced as it picks up electrons and oxidized as it gives up electrons. Exergonic reactions release energy used to form ATP.  This mechanism links chemical reactions with the pumping of hydrogen ions and is known as chemiosmosis.  Electron carriers include: Flavin mononucleotide (FMN), Cytochromes, Iron-sulfur centers, Copper atoms, & Coenzyme Q.  Inside of the inner mitochondrial membrane, the carriers are clustered into three complexes, each acting as a proton pump that expels H . +  Cellular respiration will generate either 30 or 32 ATP molecules for each molecule of glucose catabolized.  Glucose not needed immediately is stored as glycogen. The process that creates it is glycogenesis.  When ATP is needed for body activities, stored glycogen is broken down by a process called glycogenolysis.  Glucose may be formed from proteins as well as the glycerol portion of triglycerides, lactic acid and certain amino acids. The process is known as gluconeogenesis.  Cortisol, glucagon and thyroid hormones stimulate gluconeogenesis. Lipid Metabolism  Because most lipids are nonpolar (hydrophobic), they do not dissolve in water. Because blood plasma is over 90% water, lipids must be transported combined with proteins produced by the liver and intestines. These are lipoproteins.  There are four classes of lipoproteins:  Chylomicrons—transport dietary lipids to adipose tissue  Very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs)—transport triglycerides from hepatocytes to adipocytes  Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)—carry about 75% of the total cholesterol in blood and deliver it to cells  High-density lipoproteins (HDLs)—remove excess cholesterol from body cells and the blood and transport it to the liver for elimination  Cholesterol comes from some foods (eggs, dairy, organ meats), but most is synthesized by hepatocytes.  Increases in total cholesterol levels are associated with a greater risk of coronary artery disease.  Exercise, diet and certain drugs are used to reduce high cholesterol levels.  Cholesterol under 200 to be healthy.  LDL- under 130 to be healthy.  HDL- over 40 to be healthy.  Lipids may be oxidized to produce ATP.  If the body does not need lipids at any given time, they get stored in adipose tissue.  Some are used as structural molecules or to synthesize other essential substances.  Adipose tissue is used to remove triglycerides from chylomicrons and VLDLs. These triglycerides constitute 98% of all body energy reserves.  Lipid catabolism (lipolysis) is the process of splitting triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol.  Lipid anabolism (lipogenesis) is the process of synthesizing lipids from glucose or amino acids. It occurs when individuals consume more calories than needed. Protein Metabolism  Digested proteins are broken down into amino acids which are not stored, but are either oxidized to produce ATP or used to synthesize new proteins.  Many proteins function as enzymes, some are involved in transportation, serving as antibodies, clotting blood, being hormones, or being part of muscle fibers.  Protein catabolism (breaking down) yields amino acids which are converted to other amino acids, fatty acids, ketone bodies, or glucose.  Cells oxidize amino acids to generate ATP via the Krebs cycle.  Protein anabolism (synthesis) creates new proteins by bonding together amino acids on ribosomes. Key Molecules at Metabolic Crossroads  Of the thousands of different chemicals in cells, glucose 6-phosphate, pyruvic acid and acetyl coenzyme A are extremely important in metabolism. (test question- know the 3!)  Glucose 6-phosphate is involved in: Synthesis of glycogen, Release of glucose into the bloodstream, Synthesis of nucleic acid, & Glycolysis.  Pyruvic acid is involved in: Production of lactic acid, Production of alanine, & Gluconeogenesis.  Acetyl coenzyme A is involved in: Helping 2-carbon acetyl groups enter the Krebs cycle & Synthesis of lipids. Metabolic Adaptations  Regulation of metabolism depends on chemicals in the cells and signals from the nervous and endocrine systems.  Some aspects of metabolism depend on time elapsed since the last meal.  During the absorptive state, glucose is readily available.  During the postabsorptive state, energy needs are met by fuels already in the body.  During fasting and starvation, the body must make metabolic changes to survive.  Fasting is going without food for several hours or a few days.  Starvation is going without food or inadequate food intake for weeks or months.  The most dramatic metabolic change occurring with fasting and starvation is an increase in production of ketone bodies as catabolism of fatty acids increases.  They may be used for energy by all cells. Heat and Energy Balance  The rates of metabolic reactions control the amount of heat produced by the body. The rate of heat loss must equal the rate of heat production to maintain homeostasis of body temperature.  The metabolic rate is the overall rate at which metabolic reactions use energy.  Metabolic rate is measured with the body in a quiet, resting and fasting state. This is basal metabolic rate (BMR).  Factors that affect metabolic rate (heat production) include: Exercise, Hormones, Nervous system, Body temperature, Ingestion of food, Age, & Gender, climate, sleeping, malnutrition.  Heat is transferred from the body to the environment by: Conduction, Convection, Radiation, & Evaporation.  The preoptic area of the hypothalamus is the body’s thermostat.  Thermoreceptors send information to the preoptic area which sends signals to the heat-losing center and heat-promoting center of the hypothalamus, depending on the body’s needs.  Negative feedback mechanisms conserve heat and increase heat production.  Energy intake is directly dependent on the amount of food consumed.  Total energy expenditure is based on: Basal metabolic rate (60%), Physical activity (30–35%), & Food-induced thermogenesis (5–10%)  The arcuate nucleus and the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus are the areas that control hunger.  The hormone leptin helps to decrease adiposity (body fat mass).  Neuropeptide Y stimulates food intake.  Melanocortin inhibits food intake. Nutrition  Nutrients are chemicals in food that cells use for growth, maintenance and repair. They include: Water, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Minerals, & Vitamins.  Recommended calorie distribution is: 50–60% from carbohydrates (less than 15% simple sugars), Less than 30% from fats (no more than 10% saturated), & About 12–15% from protein.  The US Department of Agriculture introduced MyPlate to emphasize how people should proportion their food intake.  Minerals are inorganic elements that play important roles in maintaining a healthy body.  Vitamins are nutrients required in small amounts to maintain growth and normal metabolism. Most cannot be synthesized by the body and must be consumed in foods.


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