New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

EVE 12: Life in the Sea

by: AlexandraRita Notetaker

EVE 12: Life in the Sea EVE 012

AlexandraRita Notetaker
GPA 4.2

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Week 3 notes.
Life in The Sea
Susan Williams
Class Notes
Science, Life Science, Biology, marine biology, marine mammalogy, Davis, eve, EVE012
25 ?




Popular in Life in The Sea

Popular in Business

This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlexandraRita Notetaker on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EVE 012 at University of California - Davis taught by Susan Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Life in The Sea in Business at University of California - Davis.


Reviews for EVE 12: Life in the Sea


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/18/16
  th Day  5  (April  12 )  –  Kelp  Forests     New  species  of  kelp  discovered  in  Aleutian  Islands  in  2007     •   Def.  Kelp:  a  type  of  large  brown  seaweed   -­‐‘Golden  V  kelp’   -­‐  Length  =  10’     Very  isolated  distribution   •   volcanic  activity,  warm  sands  in  cold  seas   •   Shallow  (15‘  or  3  m)   •   Aleutian  Islands     Kelp  Morphology                           How  do  large  kelp  survive  in  the  sea?   1.  Stay  upright  in  photic  zone  plenty  of  light  for  photosynthesis  tosupport   large  size   •   gas  bladders  (pneumatocysts)   2.  Adaptations  for  drag  large  holdfasts  anchor  kelp   3.  Streamlining  minimize  surface  area  exposed  to  drag         Kelp-­‐based  Food  Web     Effect  of  a  top  predator  in  marine  ecosystems   •   Kelp  –  sea  urchin  –  sea  otter   •   Sea  otters  are  top  predators.   •   Sea  otters  control  sea  urchins.   •   Sea  urchins  eat  kelp.   •   Sea  otters  present-­‐  fewer  sea  urchins   •   more  kelp   •   higher  biodiversity             2   Sea  otter  -­‐  sea  urchin  -­‐  kelp  interaction    ‘top-­‐down’  control  of  marine   biodiversity   •   Predators  can  keep  dominant  organisms  ‘in  check’,  from   outcompeting  other  species.   •   ‘Top  down’-­‐  control  of  marine  biodiversity  by  predators,  which  sit  at   the  top  of  the  food  web.   -­‐Also  referred  to  as  a  trophic  cascade   The  loss  of  top  predators,  such  as  the  sea  otter,  can  result  in  loss  of  marine   biodiversity.     Economic  Benefits  of  Seaweeds   •   Estimated  6  billion  dollars  in  US   •   Kelp  as  food-­‐   -­‐Value  of  kelp  ‘wakame’  (Undaria):  $149  million  US     The  kelp  ‘wakame’  (Undaria  pinnatifida)   •   Non-­‐native  in  CA   •   Invasive  marine  species:  a  non-­‐native  species  that  can  harm  native  sea   life  and  marine  natural  resources     Sabellid  Worm  Infestation  of  Abalone   •   Non-­‐native  sabellid  worm  was  imported  to  abalone  farms.   –    Caused  bankruptcy  of  2  abalone  farms  Eradication  efforts   were  unsuccessful.     •   Invasive  species                       3     Summary:  Kelp  &  Kelp  Forests   •    Kelp  is  an  example  of  a  benthic  primary  producer.   •    ‘Kelp’  describes  a  type  of  brown  seaweeds  that  are  large  and  grow  in  cool   waters  on  rocky  shores.   •    Kelp  have  complex  life  histories  with  microscopic  phases  that  produce   gametes.  The  female  produces  a  pheromone  that  attracts  the  male  g amete,   which  swims.   •    Giant  kelps  (Macrocystis,  Nereocystis  (bull  kelp))  form  large  forests.  They   are  seaweed  ecosystem  engineers  because  of  the  structure  they  provide  for   other  organisms  and  because  they  modify  the  water  flow  environment.   •    Top-­‐down  control  of  an  ecosystem  (trophic  cascade)  means  that  an   organism  higher  in  the  food  web  has  an  important  effect  on  the  lower  levels   in  the  food  web,  e.g.,  the  primary  producers,  or  on  the  diversity  and   abundance  of  animals.  The  sea  otter  exerts  top-­‐down  control  on  the  primary   producers  in  a  kelp  forest  through  eating  sea  urchins.  Sea  urchins  in  high   numbers  can  decimate  kelp,  leaving  primarily  crustose  coralline  red  algae   (resistant  to  grazing).  The  loss  of  an  apex  predator  can  result  in  decreased   biodiversity.     End  of  Day  5  Notes                                 4     th Notes  Day  6  (April  14 )  –  Marine  Flowering  Plants       Marine  Flowering  Plants   
 •   Closely  related  to  terrestrial  flowering  plants,  esp ecially   freshwater  angiosperms   •   Angiosperms:  Green  plants  that  reproduce  by  flowering,  producing   pollen  and  seeds.   •  ‘vascular  plants’   -­‐  ‘veins’  transport  water  and  sugars   -­‐  true  roots,  leaves,  stems   •   Angiosperms  evolved  from  green  algae  that  colonized  la nd  from  the   ocean,  adapted  to  freshwater  lakes,  then  recolonized  the  sea,   adapting  to  salinity  and  rigorous  water  motion.   •   Form  coastal,  often  intertidal,  ecosystems     -­‐Seagrass  beds  (‘meadows’)   -­‐  mangrove  forests   -­‐salt  marshes   •   Provide  the  important  ecosystem  functions  and  services   -­‐  high  primary  production  and  food  web  support   -­‐stabilization  of  soft  coastal  sediments   -­‐nursery  habitat  for  economically  valuable  species   •   Vulnerable  to  human  activities   -­‐coastal  development   -­‐nutrient  over  fertilization  (eutrophication)     -­‐aquaculture   -­‐  introductions  of  non-­‐native  species                     5   Global  Ocean  Primary   Production     •   55%  of  total  PP  on   earth  occurs  in   ocean.   •   Distribution  and   rates  of  primary   production  in  the   ocean:     -­‐Seagrasses,  algal  beds,  salt  marshes,  and  mangroves  highly  productive   and  valuable  ecosystems   Sea  Grasses   55  species  of  sea  grass  on  earth.  (One  of  the  most  productive  in  the  world)     Sea  grasses  are  NOT  true  grasses  (Can  grow  up  to  2cm  a  day.)     6   Sea  Grass  Morphology   •   Sea  grass  leaves  are  bundled  into  leaf  shoots   •   Roots  and  Rhizomes  (Underground  stems)  anchor  seagrasses  in   sediments   •   Seagrass  leaves  can  be  cylinders,  ovals,  or  straps.     Seagrass  on  the  US  west  coast   1.  Eelgrass  (Zostera)  Grows  in  sediments  in  quiet  bays   2.  Surfgrass  (Phyllospadix)  Grows  on  rocks   -­‐Both  species  are  important  habitat  for  California  lobsters.   Seagrasses  have  a  simple  life  history.  They  produce  pollen,  flowers,  and   seeds     Surf  grass  (Phyllospadix)   •   Long  flowering  shoots   •   Currents  carry  pollen  to  female  flower   •   male  flowers  release  pollen     Enhalus     •   One  of  the  biggest  seagrasses   •   Grows  in  the  Indo-­‐  Pacific  region.     Important  ecological  functions  of  seagrass     •    High  primary  production   –    Supports  herbivore  and  detritivore  food  webs   •    Sediment  stabilization,  coastal  protection   •    Refuge  from  predators   •    Nursery  areas  for  shrimps,  crabs,  lobsters,  fishes   •    Food  and  habitat  for  endangered  species  seahorses,  green  turtles,   manatees,  dugongs,  fishes   •    Provide  detritus  food  and  shelter  for  deep-­‐sea  (abyssal)  animals   -­‐Several  seagrass  species  are  endangered  with  extinction  (Johnson’s   seagrass  in  Florida)   •   Sea  grass  beds  are  high  in  biodiversity     7   The  high  primary  production  of  marine  flowering  plants     •   provides  trophic  support  through  two  pathways.   1.    Herbivores-­‐  Herbivores  eat  living  plant  tissue.     2.    Detritivores-­‐  Animals  eat  detritus  (dead  organic  matter).     Plants  die  and  form  detritus.   •   Trophic  support:  The  provision  of  food  for  animals  in  the  food  web.   Trophic  support  =  food  web  support     Herbivory  on  seagrasses   •   sea  urchins   •   fishes     •   ducks  &  geese   •   green  turtle’s  dugongs  &  manatees     Trophic  support     •   Provided  by  the  primary  production  of  marine  flowering  plants   1.  Herbivores  eat  plat  tissue  directly.   2.  Detritivores  eat  dead  organic  matter.     Secondary  consumers  (predators)  eat  detritivores  and  herbivore  lower  in   the  food  web.     Human  use  of  seagrasses           •    Early  US  settlers  insulated  houses  and  barns  with  dried  eelgrass  
       •    Compost  for  gardens-­‐  Europe,  USA  
       •    Upholstering  and  packing-­‐  Europe,  North  America  
       •    Production  of  high  grade  Paper-­‐Europe,  USA  
       •    Food,  roofing,  woven  into  blankets  and  dolls,  cure  for  diarrhea  -­‐  Seri   Indians,  Mexico  
       •    Substitute  for  straw;  fuel;  bedding;  roof  thatch;  cigars  -­‐  Denmark  
       •    Sturdy,  durable  dikes-­‐Holland  
       •    Mulchon  potato  fields–Europe  
       •    "Zosterin",  a  strong  gelling  agent-­‐USSR  
       •    Used  in  making  nitrocellulose  during  WWI  when  cotton  was  scarce–   8   Germany  
       •    Seeds  used  as  an  aphrodisiac  in  the  Indo-­‐Pacific  
     Eelgrass-­‐  an  ocean  grain.   Seri  tribe  of  Sonora,  Mexico.   •    seeds  are  harvested  and  made  into  flour   •    used  in  basketry,  used  in  roofing  and  shades,  and  toys   -­‐The  month  of  harvest  is  named  for  eelgrass  and  is  a  time  of   happiness.     Coastal  benthic  marine  ecosystems  exist  close  to  humans.   •   Nutrients  from  land  cause  algae  to  bloom,  smother,  and  kill  seagrass.   •   Sediments  erode,  biodiversity  declines   •   Eutrophication:  nutrient  over-­‐enrichment     Epiphytes     •   Organisms  that  live  on  larger  plants   •   Algal  epiphytes  naturally  live  on  seagrass  add  to  the  primary   production  in  seagrass  beds.   •   Eutrophication-­‐  algal  epiphytes  bloom,  blocking  light  and  carbon   dioxide  from  seagrass.     Mangroves   •   Tropical  Marine  Trees   •   Form  Intertidal  Forests     •   Flowering  Trees  (angiosperms)     Mangrove  adaptations  to  the  sea   •    Prop  roots   •    Drop  leaves  to  rid  excess  salt   •    Aerial  roots  provide  oxygen  in  low-­‐oxygen  (‘anaerobic’,  ‘anoxic’)   sediments         9   Mangrove  Prop  Roots   •    support  large  trees   •    provide  nursery  areas  for  fishes   •   Aerial  roots  provide  oxygen  (pneumatophores)   •   Mangroves  are  good  for  fishing       Salt  Marshes     •    Intertidal  habitats  dominated  by  salt-­‐tolerant  angiosperms.   1.  Pickleweed  (Sarcocornia  virginica)   2.  California  cordgrass  (Spartina  foliosa)   •    a  true  grass   •    grows  along  creek  banks  in  the  marsh     Eastern  cordgrass  invasion     •   Spartina  alterniflora   •   grows  in  tight  clumps   •   fills  in  mudflat  habitat  important  for  shorebirds     •   traps  sediment  and  fills  in  channels     Summary:  Marine  Flowering  Plants  (Angiosperms)   1.    Marine  angiosperms  form  coastal  ecosystems:  seagrass  beds,  mangrove   forests,  salt  marshes.   2.    Marine  angiosperms  have  high  rates  of  primary  production,  stabilize  sof t   sediments  along  shorelines,  create  habitat  structure,  provide  nursery  areas,   support  economically  valuable  and  endangered  species,  and  are  important   to  humans.   3.    Due  to  their  close  proximity  to  land  and  humans,  seagrass  beds,   mangrove  forests,  and  salt  marshes  are  strongly  influenced  by  human   activities.   -­‐    Eutrophication   -­‐    Non-­‐native  species     -­‐    Habitat  destruction   10  


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.