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class notes

by: Janey Lyon

class notes GEOG 3330

Janey Lyon
The U
GPA 3.2
Urban Environment

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Urban Environment
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janey Lyon on Monday February 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 3330 at University of Utah taught by Petersen in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 73 views. For similar materials see Urban Environment in Geography at University of Utah.


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Date Created: 02/16/15
Monday January 26 2015 6606 3330 VKBAN ENVIRONMENTAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter one Essentials of Geography Gough Island in the South Atlantic is a UNESCO world heritage site They recently introduced house mice that is harming the bird population What are the four corners Where Utah Colorado Arizona and New Mexico meet In 2009 some one reported that is was about 25 miles off So why is this such a big deal Place latitudes longitudes the Greenwich prime meridian and mapping all make up the essentials of geography If we allow that land mark to be so off then what is the point of all this work to map out our world LOCATION Identifies a specific address or absolute and relative place on Earth PLACE describes the characteristics at the location No two places are alike REGION Defined by uniform physical or human characteristics The West coast region is dominated by a cool wet marine climate MOVEMENT Communication migration and diffusion across the Earth s surface represent movement in our interdependent world Physical Geography vs Human Geography Meteorology Economic glaciology behavioral soils population hydrology medical oceanography political geomorphology historical biogeography marketing climatology Monday January 26 2015 The Lithosphere is about the rocks The Hydrosphere is about the water The Atmosphere is about the clouds and vapors The Biosphere holds this all together to create life The Earth is a system in itself because it takes in so much solar energy and then releases that heat back out In 247 BC Eratosthenes calculated the Earth s circumference within 8 of its true size While living in Alexandra Egypt he found that the suns rays went straight down to the bottom of a well He measured to be sure and there was a 72 degree shadow He then used this number to help him figure out the circumference of the Earth The Nile River is the longest in the world It has no tributaries and it never rains yet some how the river rises and falls through out the year Two men decided to kayak down the river and it took them 9 months Earth Dimensions Polar circumference 40008 Km Equatorial circumference 40075 Km Parallels of latitude an angular distance North and South of the equator measured from the center of the Earth Latitudinal Geographic zones Arctic 65 degrees to North Pole Subarctic 55 degrees North to 665 degrees North Mid Latitude 35 degrees North to 55 degrees North Subtropical 235 degrees North to 35 degrees North Longitude distance East or West measured from the center of the Earth at Greenwich prime meridian THUS CREATING AN EARTH COORDINATE GRID SYSTEM Monday January 26 2015 CHAPTER 2 The Milky Way Galileo made a telescope in 1600 He saw how the milky way looked He saw Jupiter s moons He discovered sun spots that rotate around the sun sunspots were gone during the 1500 s and there was a minor ice age Solar Wind sourced from the sun electromagnetic particles get shattered They head towards the earth It is made up of hydrogen atoms The atmosphere an astronaut goes up into space and sees solar winds sun light ultraviolet light splits 03 atoms The ozone is made of 3 oxygen atoms that hold onto each other However due to UV light their half life is only a few days If it weren t for the ozone UV rays would blind us Electromagnetic spectrum 1 hair 100 micrometers a continuous range of waves that the sun puts out 47 micrometers is the range of visible light What we see as white light is the full range of color Newton took the prism and reflected red light and it came out red pure light 12 billionth of the suns rays feed the Earth Monday January 26 2015 REASONS FOR SEASONS 1 The revolution of the Earth around the sun 365 days 2 rotation of the earth itself in 24 hours 3 tilt of 23 degrees is always fixed Troposphere where life is It gets coder as it goes up Stratosphere Dispersed molecules It gets warmer here Mesosphere ionosphere electromagnetic particles Composition of the atmosphere mostly nitrogen oxygen from plants is 21 argon about 1 C02 about 130th of 1 January 26th CHAPTER 2 Composition of temperature function Troposphere 1st layer cools as it goes up Stratosphere 2nd layer warms as it goes up Holds the ozone layer Mesosphere 3rd layer where notilucent clouds exist This area cools again gt these are all in the Homosphere Thermosphere 4th layer part of the heterosphere Ozone is a by product of UV rays hitting oxygen molecules air density increases with altitude The atmosphere protects earth surface by absorbing dangerous short waves Monday January 26 2015 Components go the Homosphere Nitrogen78 o Oxygen20 Argon 09 C02 039 gt If the ozone were compressed it would be 3 mm thick Sources of natural variable gasses and materials Volcanoes gt Sulfur Oxides particulates Pinatubo in the Phillippinnes injected 20 million tons of 802 into the atmosphere It completely circulated the globe and actually cooled down the Earth Wildfires gt 002 Dioxide N02 Particulates Plants gt hydrocarbon pollen Decaying plants gt Methane hydrogen sulfides Soil gt dust viruses Ocean gt salt spray particulates Temperature inversions warm air inversion prevents the rise of cooler air beneath Anthropogenic gasses in lower atmosphere carbon monoxide incomplete combustion of fuel Nitrogen Oxides agricultural activity Volatile Organic Compounds incomplete combustion Ozone photochemical reaction Sulfur Oxides combustion of fuels containing sulfur Particulate matter industrial activities Carbon Dioxide our breathe gas Monday January 26 2015 Methane from landfills and rotting plants Water Vapor GHG Industrial Smog Sulfur oxides Particulate Matter Carbon Dioxide Improvement in sulfate Wet deposition rate Photochemical reactions Solar radiation creates N02 splits oxygen Nitrogen combined with H20 sulfuric acid acid rain February 2nd 2013 Earth Atmosphere Energy Systems Scattering diffuse radiation where does red occur in a rainbow at the top on the outside why is the sky blue the shorter wavelengths scatter through the pollutants These colors dominate the lower atmosphere what causes the red sunset the angle of the sun rays determine how much the light must travel lnsolation from the low altitude sun scatters there shorter wavelengths leaving the red Albedo quality of reflection fresh snow 8090 grass 2330 asphalt 510 o Monday January 26 2015 Effects of clouds on radiation shortwaves reflection some get through long waves go through Heat Transfer conduction molecule to molecule convection heat molecules rise and move radiation electromagnetic waves latent heat phase change vapor advection wind movement of heat Greenhouse high clouds result in net greenhouse forcing and atmospheric warming longwave radiation is detained absorbed and reradiated low clouds result in net albedo forcing and atmospheric cooling Energy budget equatorial energy surplus poleward transfer of energy surplus Latitudinal effects on temperature the closer to the equator the less extreme weather changes LAND HEAT warms ad cools rapidly less evaporation lower specific heat MARINE HEAT greater evaporation transparent surface higher specific heat mobility of currents Monday January 26 2015 Isotherms bend equator ward on land in January and bend poleward in july Urban Heat Island warm air gets trapped in cities its caused by nighttime warmth buildings block surface gear from radiating up evapotranspiration is reduced California studies counties with 1 million people had higher temperature increase than smaller countries Feb 9th 2015 WIND ESSENTIALS Discovery of air pressure mercury barometer aneroid barometer using no liquid has a chamber that is partially filled with air Pressure Gradients measures in isobars air wants to move from high pressure to low pressure that is what drives winds How do you describe wind Wind Vane gives direction and describes what direction it came from N S E W etc The anemometer measures speed Pressure gradients determine wind speed gradually brings light winds steep gradients bring strong winds low pressure is ascending and converging high pressure is descending and diverging Monday January 26 2015 Coriolis force causes fluids to curve as they travel Northern hemisphere counter clockwise winds Southern hemisphere clockwise winds the center of the hurricane which spins because of coriolis force is very low pressure Global barometric pressures winds run parallel to the isobars inter tropical convergence zone ITCZ is a very stormy area around the equator wind systems come together along the equator Circulation systems all driven by the cold poles and the hot equator remember pressures want to move ITCZ is low pressure Hadley cells are high pressures that cause trade winds the subtropical jet stream flows above the trade winds Westerly winds move up towards the polar front the polar jet stream runs along here before the polar front Atlantic subtropical high pressure system begins with NorthEast trade winds they warm towards the gulf stream current up to the westerlies that flow down to the canaries that bring a cooled down current Jet streams can go 190 mph above 24900 feet in altitude Day time seabreeze cooler air is drawn inland by a thermal low Monday January 26 2015 that rises toward the warm air then it cools as it descends Night time land breeze air cools and descends it is drawn off shore air rises over warm water and heats up Day time valley breeze brings heat up the mountain Night time valley breezes cool air down the mountain Winter monsoons are dry Summer monsoons are wet gt these are huge enlargements of sealand breezes Feb 11 2015 Hadley cells happen because heat rises and travels north Deep ocean thermohaline circulation Currents through out the ocean that are warm and shallow on the surface and deep and cold at the depths As they move north they are evaporating water allowing the salt content to build up That makes these currents more dense causing it to descend downward and continue its cycle around the globe Atlantic subtropical high pressure system currents in the ocean that are caused by wind blowing across the water Major Ocean currents warm currents near the equator cold currents near the poles all wind driven around the globe 1O Monday January 26 2015 QUICK ENSO REVIEW ENSO el nino southern oscillation a departure from the normal and forces the greatest inter annual variability of warm and cold currents Walker Circulation normal patter is water evaporating and precipitating down back into a loop moving east to west this helps cause upwelling near the coast El Nino the hot water moves in the opposite directions surface winds drag water to thicken the thermohaline and cuts off the upwelling La nina the opposite Winds move west that pulls cold water across the ocean Presentation notes EL Nino Unusually warm temperatures near the coast of s america influence atmosphere flow Higher precip across cali lower in PNW Favors coastal storms and hurricane on the east coast we can get more snow in the winter if its cold enough La nina Pacific cold episode influences atmospheric flow large parts of n america experience bigger storms and cold fronts Rain fall in winter and spring 11


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