Social Cognition Continued, Social Perception
Social Cognition Continued, Social Perception PSYC2012
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Monday February 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 179 views.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Class Notes Social Psychology Social Cognition Counterfaotual Thinking mentally changing some aspect of the past to imagine what might have been Can impact emotions This is the What ifs what if the Seahawks had run the ball instead of thrown it Positive if it leads to selfknowledge Negative if it leads to obsessing Thought Suppression attempt to avoid thinking about something we would prefer to forget Automatic Process searching for evidence of the memory you are trying to suppress Controlled Process consciously trying to think of something else By consciously trying to forget something you will think of it more Note selffulfilling prophecies in our stereotyping and prejudice unit you will not be tested on it in this unit but we will revisit the topic later in the semester Class Activity Three classmates are each going to tell the class three facts about themselves We have to decide which of the three characteristics are a lie First person Part of WICCA religion Took a gap year Is a part of the ultimate frisbee team Nobody guessed WICCA too specific to think she would know what this is if she wasn t actually a part of it Second Person Went to Singapore when he was 6 Went to Germany with a host family to study German philosophies He stayed in Dubai when his plane got delayed Most people guessed Germany he seemed uncomfortable telling about Germany he was less specific about Germany spent more time talking Third Person Raised on a farm in Kansas Has 5 people in her family Is a cartographer map maker No one thought the first one was a lie but the other two were tied about the class more fidgety when she said 5 people easy to adjust how many people are in your family Overall there were a lot of nonverbal clues giving the person away Social Perception Social Perception attempt to understand others through Nonverbal clues helps to determine immediate feelings or emotions These are relevant for covert operations if a CIA agent needs to figure out if someone is lying they will use this A parent telling their child s boyfriend they are happy they are over for dinner even if it isn39t true Attribution determines traits more complexspecific than using just a schema Nonverbal Communication only helpful to the extent that we can decode the information accurately Occurs through various channels Facial expressions Eye Contact Bodylanguage Paralanguage Touching Facial Expression 6 universally recognized facial expressions happy angry sad surprised disgust and fear Do we form a facial expression because we feel a certain way OR do we feel a certain way because we make a facial expression Researchers tested this it seemed that we form a facial expression because we feel a certain way Another group of researchers had a group hold a pencil with their teeth mocking a smile and fill out a mood questionnaire while they were doing this AND had another group hold the pencil with only their lips mocking a frown and fill out the same questionnaire Overall the results said that those who were mocking smiling were happier Conceptual IV face muscles Operational IV position of pencil in mouth Conceptual DV mood Operational DV questionnaire Eye Contact indicator of interest High level generally indicates more interest Too much eye contact seems creepy too little eye contact seems like you re uninterested Body Language involves gestures and postures This varies from one culture to another a thumbs up in Nigeria is offensive Gesture emblem short term action involving a small part of the body Posture action involving Paralanguage variations in speech that do not have to do with the actual words really useful when someone is lying Examples inflection hesitation rhythm Differ more than the others in the many ways they are used more uncertainty with these Touching A touch on the shoulder could be compassion or a power struggle Nonverbal Leakage when true emotions leak out even when a person tried to conceal them example by lying lnterchannel Discrepancy when one verbal channels says one thing while another says something different Like when someone is saying I like you but they are leaning away from the person Class Notes Social Psychology Social Perception Continued Nonverbal Leakage when true emotions leak out even when a person tried to conceal them example by lying Interchannel Discrepancy when one verbal channels says one thing while another says something different Like when someone is saying I like you but they are leaning away from the person Implicit Personality Theory a schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together expect that friendly sincere and trusting all go together What is beautiful is good stereotype if an individual is physically attractive they are also socially competent Shi Gu in China no counterpart in our culture Somebody who is family oriented successful reserved this means something in Chinese culture but there is no equivalent in USA If you say he is in Kappa Sigma you will associate certain other characteristics of that person Attribution trying to infer the causes of our own or someone else s behavior This is the other overarching part of Social Perception Example Example You go into a bar and see someone with an empty beer and the person next to them has beer in their lap Reasons for this The person was drunk and spilled it The person is just clumsy The person was bumped causing the drink to spill The person was mad and spilled it on the other Well what if you walk into the bar next week and see the same scene with the same two people When would this make sense or not If you had assumed it was because the person got bumped you probably would not have thought it was going to happen again If you thought she was clumsy you probably could see that this would happen again If you thought she was a mean nasty person and purposely spilled it on you you probably could see that this would happen again Social Perception Continued lnternal dispositional attribution attributing behavior to a stable internal characteristic of the person How it applies to the example above person is mean spirited if she always drinks too much she is clumsy You would think this is likely to happen again External situational attribution attributing behavior to some aspect of the situation that the behavior took place in How it applies to the example above she got bumped it was an accident somebody tripped her You would not think this is likely to happen again You assume anyone in that situation would do the same thing Another Example Joe gets a 96 on the first test in a class Why Good test taker The test was easy He studied really hard He is really smart Internal If he was a good test taker if he is smart Again you would assume it would happen for the second test too External If the test was easy You would assume this high score is a one time occurrence Studying hard could go either way Internally view studying hard he always studies hard for all his test Externally view studying hard he failed the first three tests so he was motivated to study this is a one time thing Social Perception Continued Correspondent Inference Theory Jones amp Davis under what circumstances are we confident about making an internal attribution When there is Choice someone freely chooses to do something Noncommon Effects there are no other reasons for engaging in the action If you can t come up with any other reasons for someone to do something you are more likely to favor the internal reason Social Desirability the behavior is NOT socially desirable If you are walking down the street with your significant other and you see the old lady taking groceries out of her trunk and offer to help You will think the person is really nice internal attribution because it is socially desirable to help an old lady not because you know they are really nice Covariation Model Kelley Consensus extent to which others react to the stimulusevent in the same way as the target person does Do you guys like that movie did the critics like it If everyone else watches it and likes it you will believe it is a good movie Consistency extent to which the target person reacts to the stimulusevent in the same way on other occasions Carolina has seen The Breakfast Club several times and every time she says she really likes it Distinctiveness extent to which the target person reacts in the same manner to other different stimulievents Carolina doesn t like 16 Candles and Pretty in Pink so it is distinct to The Breakfast Club How unique is it that she likes this movie Example Behavior Lori is arguing with Professor Ward Observations Lori never argues with other professors High distinctiveness Lori has argued with Professor Ward before High Consistency Other students argue with Professor Ward High consensus Conclusion Something to do with Professor Ward external the situation He is just the type of professor that invites argumentative debates Social Perception Continued Discounting tendency to attach less importance to one potential cause usually internal cause of some behavior when other potential causes are also present If someone tells you Mike broke the school record for the 100m race you will think they are an amazing runner But then someone tells you Mike had a 40mph wind at his back blowing him down the track This just discounted your original thought Augmentation tendency to attach greater importance to a potential cause usually internal cause of behavior if the behavior occurs despite the presence of other inhibitory causes If someone tells you Mike broke the school record for the 100m race you will think they are an amazing runner But then someone tells you Mike had a 40mph wind at his front blowing against him The new information makes you think Mike is even a more amazing runner than you thought before Under what circumstances will we exert more cognitive energy to go through these long attribution tracks We tend to do this when an event is negative andor unexpected You did bad on a test even though you normally do amazing this is negative bad on test and unexpected normally do amazing Fundamental Attribution Error tendency to explain others actions in terms of dispositional internal rather than more appropriate situational external causes More likely to assume that someone engages in a behavior because of an internal attribution not a more reasonable reason that is external ActorObserver Effect tendency to attribute our own behavior to situational causes by the behavior of others mainly to dispositional causes Happens due to Salience what stands out Salient to the actor is the environment salient to the audience is the actor Knowledge of past behavior know more about our OWN past behavior that someone else s SelfServing Bias tendency to attribute our OWN positive outcomes to internal cases and our OWN negative outcomes to external causes Happens due to Protective Mechanism we want to think positively about ourselves Cognitive Distinctiveness we attribute our positive outcomes internally because they are less distinctive while our more distinctive negative outcomes are externally attributed If we fail continually at something we are less likely to continue doing it Two attributional styles MasteryOriented students believe intelligence is malleable and feel effort and ability are positively related Results in students seeking challenges will help them learn more HelplessOriented students believe intelligence is fixed and see effort and ability as negatively related Results in students avoiding challenges so they don t look stupid 1O If they have to work hard they think it because they are stupid MasteryOriented students believe effort and ability are positively related Reaction to failure I need to work harder next time HelplessOriented students believe effort and ability are negatively related Reaction to failure I guess I m not smart enough to do this
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