Chapter 3 Reading Notes
Chapter 3 Reading Notes PSYC2012
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Monday February 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 157 views.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Friday January 30 2015 Reading Social Psychology Chapter 3 Social Cognition How We Think About the Social World Social Cognition ways that people think about themselves and the social world How the select interpret remember and use social information 2 different kinds Controlled Thinking careful and effortful thinking like choosing a college or deciding to breakup with significant other Automatic Thinking thought that is quick and automatic like slamming the car brakes for another car or making assumptions about people you ve just met nonconscious unintentional involuntary effortless Automatic Thinking Schemas mental structures that organize our knowledge about the social world other people ourselves social roles specific events etc Influence the info we noticethink aboutremember in our lives Basically it is so that every time we encounter a situation it isn t as if we are encountering it for the first time like walking into a restaurant or meeting someone for the first time 2 ways a person decides which schema to use for every situation Accessibility extent to which schemas and concepts are at the forefront of the mind and are therefore likely to be used when making judgements about the world AKA the more often you usethe more recent schema you have used a certain schema increases the likelihood you will use that schema versus a different one It can also be that a certain schema interpretation is something that is related to a current goal Priming recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema trait or concept Friday January 30 2015 If you are reading a book about mentally insane individuals something you see may make you think that person is mentally insane versus just drunk or something The thoughts must be accessible and applicable to the situation for priming to take place SelfFulfilling Prophecy people s expectations of a situation influence the outcome in the way they expect it would turn out These influence schemas in that they lead to our schema coming true These do not always happen they can be overcome on a case by case basis Mental StrategiesShortcuts Judgement Heuristics used when it is unclear what schema should be used usually very beneficial but can lead us astray not always the correct inference about the world several kinds Availability Heuristic basic judgement on the ease with which you bring something to mind AKA you judge a situation based on what evidence of past experiences comes to mind first Can lead to faulty conclusions because what comes to mind first isn t always the overall picture People usually use the heuristic to make judgements about themselves Representativeness Heuristic mental shortcut we use to classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case Such as assuming someone is from California because they have blonde hair are tan and enjoy being on the beach Base Rate Information info about the relative frequency of members of different categories in the population Assuming because someone is attending a SUNY school they are from New York because most people at SUNY schools are from NY Culture affects our sources of schemas Different Types of thinking Friday January 30 2015 Analytic Thinking Style people focus on the properties of objects not their surrounding context Common in western cultures America Canada UK Holistic Thinking people focus on overall context specifically how objects relate to each other Common in eastern cultures Japan China Korea Controlled Thinking Free Will and controlled thinking Turns out we only have the illusion of free will Unconscious triggers lead to a conscious thought leading to the conscious behavior Example When watching TV you had the thought I want to get ice cream so you go to the freezer and get a bowl That was the conscious thought followed by the conscious action but what made you want the bowl of ice cream Maybe something you just saw in a commercial Counterfactual Thinking when one mentally changes some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been It is the if only I had done this Example if only I had answered this question differently I would have passed the test This thinking has a big influence on emotional reactions to an event If it is easy to imagine doing it differently it has a harsher impact This is not always intentionalvoluntary it can be hard to turn off the if only even after something has long passed Overconfidence Barrier the fact that people usually have more confidence in the accuracy of their judgements Example Teachers usually think boys have more academic potential then girls whether or not this is actually the case They will believe they are right even if someone else believes girls have more potential Friday January 30 2015 There are ways to try to overcome this like using statistical evidence or forcing people to consider the other opinion
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