Chapter 6 Notes-Memory
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Date Created: 04/12/14
MEl T7IO l 39y Who am I and what do I know 102220 i 3 3 steps to form a memory Encoding 1 Storage 1 39 Retrieval Encoding Processing information into memory v How we encode Automatic encoding requires littie effort or conscious awareness Space Time Frequienqi Elaaborative encodirig requires attention and effort Rehearsal 3 5 10222013 iurqiimgnvr 3 Eibbinghaus principfez The amount uf infnrmatien iquoter39n enibered depends on ameunt of time spent learning Encoding W What we encode 39 Semantic encoding meaning m Visual enc0ding imagery f 0 T 39 Organization H V Chunicing iquot t 7 iii Hierarchies 39 pt i quot Mne139m39nwicdevices A Effects on enmiding Serial position effect Pgimacy 8 i W quot i quot I as s i 39 0g quot w T wr5 Pi nft1 39 Kg H N Re CE l iC y39 M Alaquot HquotV f I lt i git 39 i M 9 1 K Epaiing effect T Srnali repeated rehearsals impmve retention Rehearsal effect Effortful processing becomes automatic with rehearsal 1 01221201 3 Storage Retention of memories in the brain Threestage model oi memory 1 Sensory memory limited sensory necond 2 Shrorttermworking memory active encoding 3 Longterm memory encoded and stored Limelm roux rrocoiung sl r w l t 139R gmul 5intn u quotmJ inntrun ru9an mrerurv M 0 amnlw Sensory memory Sensory information trace Z Remains in the sensory system momentarily May be encoded into a short term memory v I Some information is automatically encoded into lon term memory Many implicit memories iconic memories visual 5 second Echoic memories auditory 5 34 seconds 3 quot ll I if 1 H 39 ii i y M 5quot 39 am y if P 71 Pkg J ll Ma r N 4 Working memory E em Working memory the quotaItivequot component of memory storage J 7 I We are eonseiouslv aware of information in workin memory 7 kl 7 p lea xiquot c l 1 in E L pl E H ll 6 New shortterm memories W 1 1 Encoded from sensory memory 39 L J r Organized and rehearsed in working memory Lil L or q all gV D I May beenoodedinto longeterrn memory V V V c Recalled longterm rnernories 1 39 Utilized modi ed and integraitedwith new information 1 quot quot V 1quot I 0 quot 39 I I i I T Ul Working memory working memory has a limited capacity I I 2 pieces of information quot20 seconds Capacity extended by Chuiniking Flezhearsal Lolnig ter m memory Essentially unlimited capacity Consolidation process through w hicl1 rnemoirizesi become stable Begins in the hippocampus early consolidiaticin Memories are Fragile easily last Anterograde amnesia inability to form new long1 erm memories Transfers to the cortex longterm consolidation Retrograde amnesia loss of speci c memories Longaterm memory 9 Based on irnpiroved communication in the neural networks activated by the information being learned 2 Formation of ongterm memories relies on neural changes e Longterm potentlatlon 1 i Results in more effective communication at those synapses Does not create an erzact replica of the information Memories are not 1DlZl sitalzile Sulbiect to disiruption during reconsolidationi Neumns stained in green Network connections traced in white 1 02220 3 Tra nsierice Forgettirig occurs with time can happen at any memory stage Forgetting curve L Less durable rnemories are lost most easily 39L interference by other memories may ciistort a memory Retmactwe interferenoe new memories impair recall of older memories LsquotquotI Proactive inter erence older memories impair encoding of newer memories L i Hi I 39i 7 39 J I ll 39 quot uam mm 39rr ilT n quot z 7 Y 7 77 Jiif H ifyu if M 3 395 sf Abseintimindedwriess i A itentiori failures result in memory failures 39 Encoding failure Infcirrnation not encoded at any stage wili be floigotten 391quotH139V l MV 39L iE39 i xi BI CiCliiF1g c An encoded stored memory can not be reaidiiy retrieved from storage quot39Fp ofthe tonguequot phenomenon 1 02220 3 an i h a w v 3939 r i 1 E 1 iquot Li if E T 1 ii 0 ii I 395 ai T r I i L are w Ir iii E it E rquot r 1 quot 5quot Q E quot39 L T 1 U in t 1 ii 5 d p if L quot t r l Ai 42 W i 6 5 rm 1 1 i i J 1 ii 1quot ifquot 5 1 39 393 quot quot H 5 T i V 7 V quot390 k AlV39 J I J H 139 I 39 i i I I j r J if 5 fr i H r 2 N I m W r i39 X l 391 ii Jikj U 3 I i 391 quot i 5 H4 quotJquot 39r 0 I 39 1 I P 2 Ha 0 0 0 T quot V39fquot 1391rl E 5531 F 4 ac P I 439 I E wri T M i i 0 39 iiquot I i Fe Lu E Iii LA o 1 39 39 0 I rmawni J L I J F l I r 4 ii 7 I as i 1 7gr I 5 ism i w P T 5 P go 3 7 9 j 4 391 viiLt 5 f lr39 L39chS m y ginmrohi oi uind j Equot iQ A M 039 mi e 11 eilni ri e i 0 p k U f Lam 1 Memory i I l llSlEl39ClZl lbLil lOi39i Attributing a mernory or idea to the wrong sourte Mary result in false recognition mlsidenii caition unintentional plagiarism 39 Source memory memory for the sousrte and context in which information was learned Suggesti bi I ity The tendency to incorporate misleading or faulty information into memories Misiriforrnation effect 39 Lol391uis39s research on false memories magiir1ation 6 we can create our own false memories Bias i Present knowledge feelings and personal beliefs influence the memow of previous experiences ll 01221201 3 l 5quot I i 39 i39 MY I 2 X S f 1 KB 4 fl 5 W J 4U AF it 14 A 7 1 991 p R m 411 L Iiquot r ill quot Hg In j 13 N avg E f 1 il if L T V 3 gr i if gl 54 if I r xix Va i A I T i J i M i e l 439l J hJ 398 V 1u 1 f wile el 612 r yr E LPquot P Q K q I P jig vi iii N ii i QQ ii n i p R ii F P V 9R f Hf 3 U fJ if i i F 3M iiquot i i M i 1ii in fl VM 0Q i quot i i 5 I 5 i 39 7 39 4 h E nrGKi i z 1 L g O N O or i if ix ix 6 lei i
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