Chapter 1 Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Edelstein on Monday February 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1001 at George Washington University taught by Dr Osborne in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 178 views.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Module 1 Week One Chapter 1 Recorded Lecture 1 What is sociology and why do we study it Social Forces anything human created that in uence pressure or push people to behave and think in speci c ways Sociology the scienti c study of human activity in society l humans interacting with one another forming communities etc Biography all the events and daytoday interactions from birth to death that make up a person s life Sociological Imagination a perspective that allows us to consider how outside forces especially our time in history and the place we live shape our life stories or biographies Sociology studies human society and social behavior in a scienti c manner Two main aspects of society 0 Social interaction how people relate to one another and in uence one another s behavior 0 Social phenomena observable facts or events in human society Society and other people in uence your behavior in this way it is everchanging A society is a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations Sociological Imagination The ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society Private vs Public Issues Why do people study sociology 1 To understand how behavior is in uenced by social factors 2 To learn how to view the world through the eyes of others l look beyond common beliefs and nd hidden meanings sociological perspective 3 Attempt to balance one s personal desires with their social environment connect the larger world with personal life sociological imaginations 4 Find your 39place both within society and history Sociology as a Social Science Sociology is one of the six social sciences l a social science studies human behavior institutions or functions of human society in a scienti c manner Other social sciences anthropology psychology economics political science history Methods Paradox If we successfully answer one question it only spawns others There is no member when a social scientists work is done The general goal of sociology is to see how our individual lives are intimately related to and in turn effect the social forces that exist beyond us Puzzle what causes what to happen Once we have the answer to a more precise question it raises many other questions Two Types of Research Methods We generally categorize methods according to two dimenstions Dimension One Primary Data generated quotfirst handquot by the sociologist Not present before the research began Secondary Using quotsecond handquot data which already exists lnfo which already existed before the sociologist started their research historical records etc Dimension Two Quantative Methods which generate numerical information Qualitative Methods which generate rich indepth information observation Ethical lssues in Research 1 Participants should not suffer harm as a result of taking part in sociological research 2 Try to seek the informed consent that those people who are taking part in the research get their permission 3 Should not use research methods that are based on deception should not conceal the purposes of the research or identity from participants 4 Privacy and con dentiality ethical guideline that nothing published should identify individual people or individual institutions Socioogy focuses on social relationships how they in uence people s behavior and how societies the sum of these relationships develop and change In understanding social behavior sociologists rely on critical thinking Key element of sociological imagination ability to view one s own society as an outsider would as opposed to the perspective of personal experiences and cultural biases Auguste Comte father of sociology philosopher 17781857 credited with being the most in uential philosophers of the early 18005 believed that a theoretical science of society and a systematic investigation of behavior were needed to improve society Harriet Martineau offered insightful observations of the customs and social practices of her native Britain and the USA Wrote quotSociety in Americaquot which looked at religion politics child rearing and immigration l writings emphasized the impact of the economy law trade health and population have on social problems Herbert Spencer hoped to understand society better rather than correctimprove it Applied concept of evolution of species to societies to explain how they change over time said that it is natural that some are rich while others are poor Emile Durkheim insisted that behavior should be understood within a large social context not just in individual terms Anomic the loss of direction felt in society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective Max Weber Ver Stehn fairshtayen understanding or insight in intellectual work ldealtype a construct or model for evaluating speci c cases Karl Marx critical of existing institutions that a conventional academic career was impossible l Communist Manifesto argued that masses of people with no resources other than their labor should unite to ght for the overthrow of capitalist societies Marx and Engels l said that society was divided between two classes that clashed in the pursuit of their own interests WEB DuBois said sociologists needed to draw scienti c principles to study social problems importance of religion in society Double Consciousness the division of an individual s identity into two or more social realities
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