Chapter 7 Notes-Learning
Chapter 7 Notes-Learning
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Date Created: 04/12/14
10282013 I Y ll 1 4 14quot in L L iquot quot39F t 39 lg x F Classical conditioning l K l i a it e 5 P6 A Requires the paiiring of two stimuli to condition a T H T 1 response N la p T V i 7 t I n 3 Stimulus l P llf p 931 i U I 39 M L i E p l quot I39 Ieu raIstimuus 39 p U unconditioned stimulus l M 0 Re5PDnse GU l i 397 1 391 P Uncomlitioned response 339 A I f i i i7lzf V LPr391 T ik 5 f39lllquotHi lbquot 1 Stimulus l 39 7 L i r 1 V 395 M 9 1quotquotls P lr i si ll ZiaIll J b Classical Conditioning l l Ill J in t 39 39 Stimulus l Q Bel Food Salivation i i T i if PF T i By repeatedly pairing the NS with the UCS O P quot1 A5 F Classical conditioning T 0 6 7wf iquotA ki Stimulus Realms i may quotI Tl r lt l I r e e N i39f l 5 I 5 D J Hf F Bell Salivation I l 33 no The cs now elicits the CR T 1quot 1 u EL Thorndike Puzzle box paradigm 39 Learning curve for escape 39L3WEi9EE es 39T rcessful behaviors are likely to be repeated 4quot jlnle wt elm g quot 1rh E kME quotquot V i 7 ii iii 391 ir39 q 39 k g nt if W l 3 1 i i gs 0 1v L j P 10282013 in It 4 O P l 7quot quotk ti quot rquoti quotfile 39 e P J l 37 P 7 d i G A W lf xtkJ 7 t 3 U off if at i rquot t if w39aquottn Wr 1 mam Q d 39Jquot39I E 7 K il r rl39 I v 394 1 5 quot P 0 p I 0 P 0 c Vfin I9 BF Skinner Major pioneer of behaviotism All responses can be scienti cally measured Skinner box Used to shape complex behaviors Opera nt conditionirlg Leami n39g an association between a behavior and its consequence Requires that a consequence follow the behavior Reinforcement increases the lifkelihood of4the behavior EnWIN Ltcw r A3 S oer we lt21F Punishment decreases the likelihood of the behavior 7 b i lAVin mE k r i39lquot EM5C E i Et 0 0 R s 10282013 v U ill I Kl val p Lquotitv it f ll in r is DlSCT Il l39ll 391Ell7lZO l ElFlCl Generalization T T lLlllla39I I I requot 1 I L quot 1 l l V Siquot 1 i l 1 e Discrlrninative stimuli Contextual cues present during quot T T T TT the behavior conseq uence pairing Indicate a context in which a behavior will result in the CClII39l5E qUEil39Ic 39 When the discriminative stimulus is absent behavior will have no effect Generalization Behavior is repeated in a wider variety of contexts ii Shaping e J Complex behaviors are created by the desired behavior 39 T T I Each response that comes closer to the desired behaTwior is rewarded Discrete segments of the lzlehaviorreventualilv Lurrlpl use the whole behavior f Real worrl applications Applied behavioral therapy V Shapes behavior using reinforcement oll discrete behaviors 0 T e i i irrlnnall training Shapes behavior using reinforcement of discrete behaviors A punish merit may be userl for specific behaviors 39 Teaching children good behaviors and basic skll ls Shapes behavior using reinforcement of discrete behaviors Reinforcement schedules l I Affect speedancl retention of learning 1 quot 39 quot quot V quot 2 Continuous reinforcement p r v i L r x 1 I at r r 39 Rapid learning rapid extinction gt v i p l I K l V Partial reinforcement slower learning more resistant to extinction lFlxed ratio Variable ratio T J Fined interval L I Observavtiional iiearriing J Animals and humans ieam izhmugh iwatchiing and imitating others Part of typical development Begins during eariv infancy Adaptive Evoluliionairily ad anitageous Observational learining ii Dbsewaticin a iearriing utilizes mirror neurgns Neurons in the fruniai cortex 393 Cquotquot 39 J i Respond to observation of activity and emotion Albert Bandura Observationai ieerning reiies on watching another s behavior and observing the outcome Bobo doill study 1 02820 13 Prosociali observatinnal learning Modelingiobservatlon of prosocial behaviors increases the occurrence of those behaviors Children whiz observe regular prosocial behaviors engage in those behaviors and exhibit prosocial attitudes Adult ibehaviar can also be influuenced by pmsocial behaviors 1023982013 Antiisocial oblservational learning MndeIingobservation of aggressive behaviors can have antisocial effects Children exposed to virulence are more aggressive Immediate and delayed effects or exposure to violence 39 Likelihood of abused children becoming abusers Television and other media models many negative behaviors v Correlation Causation Effects of media violence on attitudes and ibehaviars i imitation I Desensitization
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