Chapter 13 - The President
Chapter 13 - The President POLS 1337 - ABBOTT
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chloe Lall on Monday February 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1337 - ABBOTT at University of Houston taught by Kenneth Abbott in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 207 views. For similar materials see POLS 1337 US Govt: Congress, Pres & Crts in Political Science at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Chp 13 The President39s Powers Wednesday February 11 2015 11 32 PM Presidential Elections 0 Citizens in each state who vote in their party39s primary election choose the delegates to the national conventions o Nominee of opposing party is chosen at the National Party Convention Delegates chosen based on the outcome of caucuses and primary elections Presidential Roles in the Domestic Sphere o Presidents must interact w Congress 0 Manage economy 0 Serve as a leader of their party 0 Chief Legislator Presidents can influence Congress by lobbying its members to support or oppose pending legislation and by defining the congressional agenda They submit the budget for the entire fed Gov to Congress yearly The authority either to sign legislation into law or to veto it Integrates the executive into the legislative process Presidency of Bill Clinton gt new kind of veto power I Lineitem veto power of the president to strike out specific line items on an appropriations bill while allowing the rest of the bill to become law declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court 0 Chief Economist Submitting a budget to Congress Presidents shape where fed Tax dollars are spent Set economic priorities of the legislative agenda Help est the regulatory and economic environment business operations Influences economic growth and employment levels Central power appointment of the Federal Reserve Board and its chair Presidential Roles in the Foreign Policy Sphere 0 Powers are mostly constitutionally derived Gives president authority with which to carry out the roles of Chief diplomat Commander in chief of the US armed forces 0 Chief Diplomat Supported by State Department National Security Council CIA Branches of US military Creates and administers foreign policy Can act more unilaterally than with most domestic policies Congress less likely to challenge presidents in foreign policy arena 0 Commander in Chief Supreme military commander of Army Navy Air Force Marines Coast Guard Decides when to send troops into battle and sets military strategy in times of peace and war Overlap in the Domestic and Foreign Policy Roles Chief Executive and Chief of State 0 Chief Executive Appoints secretaries top admin of the cabinet 15 depts Of federal gov Also appoints other staff members and numerous advisors Including staff in the Executive Office of the President Determines how the bureaucracy will implement the laws Congress has passed and which policies concerning education crime social welfare will be emphasized 0 Chief of State Reflects the chief executive39s embodiment of the values and ideals of the nation Both in US and abroad Role of symbolic leader of the nation gt promotes national unity o The Vice President39s Role First in line of succession to the presidency Secondincommand Choosing a Vice President Wouldbe presidents strive for a balanced ticket broaden their appeal to the electorate and increase their chances of getting elected Select a mate who brings Diversity of ideology Geographic region Age Gender Race Ethnicity May base in policy expertise or in governing exp 0 The Cabinet Every president has depended on the advice of a cabinet the group of experts chosen by the president to serve as advisers on running the country Serve as the heads of each of the executive depts Each cabinet member NOT Department of Justice is called the secretary of that dept Head of the Department of Justice is attorney general 0 The Executive Office of the President Executive Office of the President EOP offices councils and boards that help the president to carry out the day to day responsibilities of the office Also coordinates policies among different agencies and depts Some important offices Have a strong role in developing and implementing policy in these issue areas White House Office National Security Council Office of Management and Budget Council of Economic Advisers The White House Office White House Office WHO The office that develops policies and protects the president39s legal and political interests Research policy and keep the president informed about policy issues on the horizon National Security Council I National Security Council NSC consisting of top foreign policy advisors and relevant cabinet officials this is an arm of the EOP that the president consults on matters of foreign policy and national security Advised presidents on key national security and foreign policy decisions and assisted in the implementation of those decisions NSC might coordinate its implementation among the Department of State CIA various branches of military Office of Management and Budget Office of Management and Budget OMB office which creates the president39s yearly budget Budget outlines the anticipated revenue that the gov will receive next year Revenue from taxes and fees paid by individuals and businesses Budget lists expected expenditures for the upcoming year Details how much money the depts And agencies will have to spend on Salaries Administrative costs Programs Among the president39s most important agencies when it comes to policy making and policy implementation The director of OMB has a staff of about 600 career civil servants The director is a member of the cabinet Works closely with Congress making sure that the budget resembles the president39s intentional budget as close as possible Lobbies members of Congress gt ensures that the key points of the proposed budget that are important to the president are to remain in the congressionally approved version of that budget Wants to closely resemble the president39s wish for the budget Once the budget is approved by Congress the director ensures that the money is spent on their designated purposes Make sure fraud and financial abuse does nothappen Presidential Succession 0 When the President Dies in Office Vice president takes the role of president EX Harry Truman when Franklin D Roosevelt passed In 1945 Some exceptions can fill a term for reasons other than the death of the president EX Gerald Ford held presidency when Nixon resigned due to the Watergate Scandal Presidential Succession Law of 1947 determines presidential succession of the VP also dies or cannot govern The next in line if this happens is the Speaker of the House of Representatives 0 When the President Cannot Serve the 25th Amendment If a president is unable to govern due to illness physical impairments etc then the 25th Amendment comes into play The amendment was ratified after the assassination of Kennedy 25th Amendment if a president believes that heshe is unable to carry out the duties of the office then the president must notify Congress and the Vice President takes on the role of the president until the president is able to regain authority Applies when a president is induced for surgery or if they are recuperating from a serious illness If the president is unable to fulfill duties of office AND unable to notify Congress then the vice president and a majority of the cabinet must notify Congress The VP still becomes acting president If the president is able to re take their duties in office a 23 of Congress is required for the acting president to remain in office Sources of Presidential Power 0 The powers of the president have evolved Reflects the expansion of the fed Government Changes in public attitudes about the proper role of the government Personalities and will of those who have previously served as president 0 The framers of the Constitution sought to est an office that would balance authority whole preserving the rights and will of the people Granted the presidents with expressed powers and inherent powers in the Constitution 0 Congress grants presidents with additional powers statutory powers through congressional action 0 Expressed powers presidential powers enumerated in the Constitution 0 The Constitution Inherent Powers Take care clause constitutional basis for inherent powers the president quotshall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executedquot Inherent powers powers that are implied in the constitution 0 Statutory Powers Statutory powers powers granted to presidents by congressional action I EX Line Item Veto Act gave the president power to turn down certain line items on a appropriations bill while allowing the rest of the bill to become a law 0 Special Presidential Powers Executive Orders Executive orders the force of the Law carried out by the president Carry same weight as congressional statutes Executive Privilege Executive privilege authority of the president and other executive officials to refuse to disclose info containing confidential conversations or national security to Congress or to the courts Presidents draw on the idea that the framework of the Constitution of separation of powers justifies the holding back of certain info from Congress or the Judiciary Presidents claim executive privilege so they can get advice without fear that their conversations might be exposed to the public or looked down by members of Congress Presidents have invoked exec Privilege when negotiating foreign policies with other heads of state The People as a Source of Presidential Power Most important source of presidential power comes from the people quotthe power to persuadequot president39s ability to wield their power control the political agenda and to get things done gt functions as political skill and charisma The President and the Bully Pulpit lf presidents win popular support for their views and 0 their political agenda it will be easier to get their policy priorities through to Congress To persuade the people they exploit the power of their office Uses the presidency which allows them to speak out on any matter What is bully pulpit Presidents look to communicate that their stances on important issues are the right choices Want their actions supported Strive to persuade the public that they are doing a great job on the major policy fronts mostly economic and foreign policies The Evolution of Presidential Power 0 Great Depression and the election of Franklin D Roosevelt created an enormous growth in presidential authority 0 Presidential powers have expanded gt creating what Arthur Schlesinger Jr calls the quotimperial presidencyquot 0 Early Presidents and the Scope of Presidential Power Thomas Jefferson election in 1801 marked the earliest expansion of presidential power Increased presidential power in 2 ways 1 Est the principle of inherent powers of the presidency by going through with the Louisiana Purchase 2 First time that the president had to act as party leader Andrew Jackson alter adopted the role of president as the party leader Emphasis on populism a political philosophy which emphasizes the needs of the common person spawned a new source of presidential power First president to derive real and significant power from the people Mobilized the masses of common people who had not been civically engaged Increased popularity of the president and investing with power that came from the people39s goodwill o The Watershed 1970s The Pentagon Papers Watergate and the quotImperial Presidencyquot Dpt Of Defense Daniel Ellsberg leaked a classified topsecret 7000 page history on the nations involvement on Vietnam from Truman admin to Nixon admin Was called the Pentagon Papers gt first appeared as a series of articles in the NY Times Nixon admin petitioned the Dept of Justice to prevent further publication of the remainder of the articles gt Washington Post assumed publication of them Dept of Justice sued the Post the Boston Globe resumed publication Govt had failed to meet the burden of quotshowing justification for the imposition of such a restraintquot Led to continued publication of the papers 0 Impeachment A Check on Abuses of Presidential Power Impeachment the House of Representatives has the power to formally accuse the president and other highranking officials vice president and fed Judges of crimes Refers to charges of quotTreason Bribery or other high Crimes and Misdemeanorsquot stated by the Constitution If a majority of House members vote to impeach the president they forward the charges against the president called the articles of impeachment towards the Senate Senate tries the president gt determines the penaHy The senate has the authority to punish the president by removal from office Women in the White House Executive branch has been most challenging for women to gain a spot as formal participants No women served as cabinet member until the 20th century Women as First Lady have influenced presidents and policy EX Nancy Reagan and Hillary Clinton
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