Chapter 12 Notes-Social Psychology
Chapter 12 Notes-Social Psychology
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Date Created: 04/12/14
lil 4201 3 Social Psychology How humans think about relate to and influence others Social psychology Two major assumptions Behavior is driven by context Suibjectaive perceptions guide our behavior 7 Group in uence jlndividual behavior is influenced by the presence of others to Deindividuation J 39 Being part of 3 group can result in diirninished personal 345 A 39 air 5 E3 1 E 1 F if I 1 PQ Equotquotl39 4 Diffusion of responsiibiliity We feel less responsible for our own actions when we are part ofa group l a 39 Social loafinrg 7 Bystander effectlie h Social facilitation me We perform faster in the presence of others J V fquot v If 39 I 1 quot 4V4 39 r s j quotv at 39 quot3 3 alliL li quot al ant I Tr l K 39 ll 95 as l kl39ai quot u J 0 Group influence quot Ii 1 Kr391lquot v a Individual behaviori may also influence the laehavior ofthe group iquotr rt p2 gr 39 I 1 ll4 l20 1 3 Group in uence Group behavior is infiuenced by the iiniteractions within a group quot Group poiarizationi Beneficiai or detriimeantai 39iampi39iv rigra ii jt ii Grouipthink Group mesmbersi may support a bad idea in the interest of u roup K harmony re0 mm piCigt 3 it L i I 7 W i39j1f 39 Group members become more ailike through imieraction 45 39Etf39quot U K F i Causes quotiii H ii U T 0 Results 1 W if P M lt i7vquoti L quotIquot L 39 1 1 An I i i V 1 Tie often unconscious attitude toward a group and its meirnbers T T M i e i O c 39 M I Beliefs 39 7 i P Emoitionso h i39H39 quot 39lquot39 Vri l Predisposiition to act L Discrirnination behavior How common is piejudiicie lrnplicit association test see Iiinksi on website i14201 3 P 1142oi3 Social roots of prejudice g pW P 4 3 H Z M i i i I 15 g a Socialiiineqwualitiesincreaseprejudice i ii i i T T e i i Sociiai divisions increase prejudice 39 i e i f 2 i 1Emotional scapegoaiting quot quotquotquot quot I 139 K 39 mi 39 I quoti Ingroup vsiOutgmiupj in 39 PO a 7 139 39 i P quot i i x J 539 R i V 39 in IQ quotquot P 24 T T 39 1quot A e 39 1 V ii i M117 7 iiasn39vxsrH r1 rmL39 rtK Ilka i Ii J 39 G Cognitive roots of prejudice lg P 1 t it quotA 5 391 Cia tegorizatiori PS J 3 Availability heuristic i Justworld phenomenoini T A Q L 3 P i i L 391 V F V l L H H B 1 J I l E 3 1 V How Social influence Ability to control others behavior T Normative in uence p Informationiai influence 391 Social norms 3 Unwritten rules that control social behavior Msigraim s norm experiment Anxiety prevents us from breaiking norms We need to justify our actions Context directs our feeiinigs and behaviori 1 H4l201 3 Conformi1y Tendency to do what others are doing A Do you resist group pressure Aschs1udy 1 2 3 Comparisuzm lines Standard line Demonstrates suggestibility as a forrhi of conformity 11l4I2013 3 11l42013 Obedience 39 Tendency to do what we are toid 4 would you resist an authority figure who told you to harm another person i 1 V 1 7 77 W ask 7 7 PM Milgram study Milgram found that obedience is highest when i Authority gure is nearby r k kN y 0 N 1 39 Authority figure is convincing and associated with a powerful institution V Victim is depersonalized andor distant 4 P K TL Disobedience has not been modeied by others K Conformity and obedience Conditions that strengthen conformity One is made to feel incompetent or insecure I The group has at least three people I The group is unanimous 39 I One admires the group39s status and attractiveness I One has no prior comnritment to a response I The group observes one39s behavior I One39s culture strongly encourages respect for a social stiandard Persuasion I Ability of others to influence our attitudes and beliefs I Systematic persuasion 1quot I Heuristic persuasion 4 rt T Ml l r F 1142013 111412013 I Pf 1 quot39 1 1 i1 11 1 Q J m 1w111 quot 39 quot 39 quot 39 r Q 1 i 39 Q P 391 1 39 39 139quot 31quot39quot391 w1 11 O M it M M SOCa1 1i139ilF39I1ltiF39l8 f p N 391 M N 39 i N L bM N N N 139 39 1 quot Attribution theory our inferences about the cause of someone eise s behavior 1 1 I ML 1 11 J F 1 UL 1 1 H Ls 3911 K39 is39 39Etf 1quot 0 I k quot quot1 e U 39 P Dispositional attribution o N G H PgI F b 1 2 F Situationail attribution 393 quot G 39161 xi i L 1 39quotgavfia 9D 1 f N 1 3 39139 1 p G 3 E 1 Fundamental attribution error quot pSg quot1 E 11 1 pvE CorrespondeMnce bias in uences our response D M 1i quot iii 1rfFr pmD 3n P D 1 4 A1 V T 39 1 3911quot 1 o 5quotK I E 1 u 1 1quot F r 39 J E 7 1 Hquot 1 39 1 39 B A 5quotquot 1 39n 1 1 quot 1 39 Actorstobservwer e i ct L Self serving bias 0 B cf 5a f pe 7a C quot C a u pq Attitudes and actions p Attitudes are beliefs that miquotuence who we feel and act g 1 r 1 i j1m V Attitudes direct our behavior 1 1 quot p 1 Our actions can aiso direct our attitudes gt 1 1 39 La 1 391 quotJquot quot quot 391 39 39 P 1 394 Zimbardo s lstanford Prison Experiment ll Examined the effects of role playing on attitudes and behaviorl Arbitrarily assigned volunteers to play the role of prisoner or prison guard Demonstrtated that role playing can have at strong effect on beliefs quot quot 0M l 39 397 Fquot I Cognitive olissonance g 39fenslonl that results from opposition between actions and attitudes ln order to reduce tension one must change either actions or attitudes Action caln have a powerful effect on attitudes 39 Footlilnsthel oor phenomenon Once someone has agreed to a small request they are more likely to agree to a large request l i 51 fl 1 quot v w I 39 1142013 10
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