Chapter 8 Notes-Emotion & Motivation
Chapter 8 Notes-Emotion & Motivation
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Date Created: 04/12/14
Emotion amp Motivation Emotion Physiological response to an external stimulus 39 Objective response Autonomic arousal Activation of the sympathetic nervoius system 39 Release of stress hormones 1 11912013 Emotion Physiological response to an external stimulus Objective response Behavioral response 39 Muscle contraction Facial expressions Q influenced by display rules Emotion Physiological response to an external stimulus Objective reslponse Motiivation 39 Directs behavior rlt Pleasrurej 39 11 ll 92013 11192013 Emotion Subjective response Feelings Perceptions Learned associations 39 Measuredl as Arousal Valence 0 quot L Theories on Feelings 1 JamesLange Feelings result from FMdEnOlr 39 CannonBard leelings result froml 639N39W39MNWwuftal HquotquotJ139J5 Schacter Singer T Feelings result from 39I010g39C0a frldbl P iquot39 quotquotquotquot quot quot Neural control of emotions Thaiamus mm Sensory intake Amygdala i p Immediate unccmsciious appraisal mm 39 Cortex Siower consciizous appraisal Prefrontal cortex I otivat I rot n A need or dieisire that energizes and directs behavior Pink 1010 1 cJ 39 Social P530 ole n oJs 39 1 il 1 9201 i3i 111 9201 3 Qriygreduction theory ivlotiivation is the result of drives T T T quotquot at 0 orivespIny5inlo2caA 1vbalanc A W T T Result G r dUC2 quotquot39 5Q c39 V 39s M a 10VICE Tue Mg 7 howeoalns dytvl is uuma r Q lnmneoSinS1539 iltM4W W M bw3quot9 quot quot We Hem 55 u quot39quotg hunger thirst WL CcWec fqy8 food water eating drinking nceniveMivation LHedm t w ate s corms rm W Wm incentives stimuxii we like or disliike M Learning and expectations resultinz r A that 395 Po owaiidtmnu o o of incentive Intrinsic motivation p ib dlvuHy ramrdlv Extrinsic motivation T go leads I39D Vbward5 re VIVL5 ovJ6W 39 dill3 W n eamp1r v391539c 39r1 Wtquot395 5 N07 vvolnIrn 4ML 39n39hr39iv iL 3i it 11 l 92013 pZN Ag LFquotIquot i3zl39quot il Ii39 3quotl39 P39 E1quot 5A E 7f39I5 P iiivra i Wv39lt T iaslo i quot Hierarc y of needs I mhlpkga M i Selfarztiuailization needs l f e E llleed to liveup to one s PB raw Cl V T B fullest and unique potential W U 51 l l Esteem needs Need for selfesteem 3E1 iE VEm ElFlL competeq e and indepeindaence ii 39 H needforreicogniitit1nandrespect l rom omers 39 l 39 I 4 3 Bel0ngi ngnesis and love needs Need to love and be loved to belong and be acceptecl need to avoid l01Eli 1E 5Sia Id aliemationa Safety needs Need to feel that the world is organized and pired ictable need to feel safe secure and stable P Plwsioliogiical needs Need to satisfy hunger and thirst p L Limitations of the hierarchy of needs Order may vary Not all needs must be met 100 at all times Behaviors may fulfill multiple needs at various times 11111912013 l I J 0 E L 1 1 w E lgt c 6 71 Eff p r 51 i I Psychological Needs s 55 39gquot 1 gt 39 l f t in addition to Ma slow s hierarchy other needs have been proposed Achieivement 51 UfE139i 0 q T 0 Power 0 V Cognition I 1T139l 1 39 W 11quot p I information 3 1 A Identity St i u Fr Mieaning 1 L t E r 1 vi Ir arm g f r 391 339 J R W F J T1ii quot gt r I 399 X tquot quot J 1 i u l 39quot rgt E 39 quot3939 395 E V P Ill 39 1 Psychologicalwell being comes from le avi u ill t e eed for AUtOnDm v srewf ciwcrimzli Competence quot w 1 l vW39c2 li 5 1 1 1 g Relatedness V F39 u 139 il391 f 1t 1 1 rt l w lt ii 11 4 9 4 ul 39quotquotquot139l wt 39 39ivg is quot quot 39 F 39 quot Er Iv 1 l39ma39e I1 lmw iciv 0A A j Arousal theory P pX 1 39 l 1rquotli iFl111l Li ilIquot Q Humans have a need for an optimum level of arousal arm W5 1D Once physiologiical needs are met the need for stimulation remains Optimum arousal varies by lindividual and time 39 Methods of stimulation viaryvi 1u1I 0 P G g 7 w o 3 G 1 quot 1 lI1l 3 39a3939 F 39 to lo 1 t ta 3 N O it 0 kquot 39rl1 L439f it l s g D L 0 p v S 9 I Lminii 2 51 14 if 1 1 1 1 91201 3 Obesity PMC if quot 1 El1irlt ri i flg P t Bodymass index of 30 WE heallithi issue Threatens health and increases disease risk Being obese is itself nota disorder Hal ma K is quot Social disiciriminatinarrtioei l rrquotwr e rall W quot quot39 Causes A Evolution quot quot Vquot Learning Environment 2 Sexual mo Iiviation The drive to procreate Pleasure is a perk that aiccompaniies the drive to reproduce e r c is 3 Despite the drive to procreate humans derive satisfaction from many non reprolductiiVe sexual activitiesi Hormones and sex drive I ro 0 Hormones direct sexual clevellopment and activateenlhance behavior Testosterone d primary male sex hormone Made in the testes Effects lrquot 0 Estrogen one of two main female sex hormones Made in the ovaries Effects What causes sexual arousal 39 Sexual education m J r V lt93 Externall stimuli 39 0 Ilnternralsitirnluli u 39 Social factors influence motivation and behavior Cultural attitudes quot1lquot 39Lquotl I quotX Personal values and attitudes N quot 39 111 92013 10 Sexual orientation 39l Preference for emotional and sexual relationships with individuals ofthe same other or both sexes Orientation as a continuum I V T to I I I Exclusively Exclusirvely homosexual in tletelrosexual in attraction thought attraction thought 8 behavior Eu behavior What determines sexual orientation Prenatal hormone explosulre may be correlated Research is limited 11192013 11
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