Criminology- Biological Theories
Criminology- Biological Theories CJ 100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Monday February 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Douglas Klutz in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 299 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Criminology o Criminology is the study of criminal behavior 0 There are 3 types biological psychological and sociological quotDemonic Possession of Crime o quotdemonic possession was the dominant theory up to the 1700s to explain crimes 0 Crime was said to be the result of supernatural forces possession by demons spirits o Shift away from the quotdemonic possession theory came with the Age of Enlightenment o The Enlightenment was a cultural movement that was aimed at promoting rational thoughts while opposing superstitions o This new thinking influenced the American Revolution and our Bill of Rights I Influence how colonists view their rights and the concept ofjustice Classical Criminology A new theory about crime that came out of the Age of Enlightenment It was the first attempt to explain crime in scientific terms 0 Key person Cesare Beccaria 0 First and most prominent Classical Criminologist whis work An Essay on Crimes and Punishment 1764 0 Key components of the Classical Criminology theory 0 People are rational beings and crime is the result of rational choices 0 People seek to maximize pleasure and minimize pain I Weight the costs vs benefits of situations 0 Crime is committed via FREE WILL gt crime is a choice not demonic possession 0 Unless people are deterred faced wcosts they will commit crimes I General deterrence deterrence for all of society I Specific deterrence deterrence for a particular person or group 0 Classical theory focuses on natural forces that can be observed as causes of crime and explanations for criminal behavior I Absence of effective punishment for crimescriminal behavior gt more crimes 0 3 elements for an effective Criminal Justice system as proposed by Beccaria I Swiftness of punishment gt trials set ex 6th amendment I Certainty of punishment gt lawsrules enforcement I Severity of punishment gt punishment fits the crime 0 quotblind justice laws are applied equally to EVERYONE gt quotequal justice 0 Problems wthe Classical model are all people rational What about those wmental handicaps Lombroso and the Positive School model 0 Cesare Lombroso argued that many criminals were quotgenetic throwbacks 0 quotgenetic throwback primitive person who was stuck in modern society 0 Believed that criminals were geneticallybiologically different than noncriminals I All people are NOT equal and shouldn t be treated equal 0 Came up wconcept of determinism I Determinism idea that most behavior is determined by factors beyond free will and free choice behavior is determined for you 0 Opposite of Beccaria s claim 0 Concept of quotborn a criminal o If you are quotborn a criminal then you will always be a criminal 0 Positive School of Criminology 0 First attempt to explain crime through the lens of biology o Lombroso made a list of physical traits that he thought constituted criminality I If you had any of those traits then you were a criminal I Problem racial profiling Classical vs Positive Criminology summary 0 Classical School individuals freely choose to engage in crime Beccaria 0 Positive School criminals have no choice in their actions they are born that way Lombroso PostLombroso and IQ Testing 0 IQ testing focused on individual differences that could lead to crime 0 One difference bwn people would be their mental capacityIQ score 0 IQ Intelligence Quotient developed by a Frenchman named Alfred Binet o Binet said IQs M be changed and that testing could be used to help slow people I IQ testing originally had a good intention o HH Goddard gt turned IQ testing s good intention into bad usage 0 Believed that IQ testing should be used to deport incapacitate sterilize and target low IQ people I Early theory of eugenics I Goddard believed that IQs couldn t be changed gt you are born wthe IQ you have I Label for low IQ quotfeeble mindedness I He believed that society had no place for low IQ people and therefore they should be removed eugenics o 3 subgroups of quotfeeble mindedness people I Morons smartest of the quotfeeble mindedness category I Imbeciles I Idiots least smart of the quotfeeble mindedness category I Goddard believed that morons were the biggest threat to society and the progression of humanity o Consequence of Goddard s work was forced sterilization of people 0 Buck v Bell 1927 gt dealt wissue of sterilizing low IQ people I Upheld the use of sterilization for the purpose of limiting reproduction by those who were quotfeeble minded for fear of them passing on their genes 0 Reasoning promote quotprotection and health of the state 0 Sterilization for lowIQ scorers continued until 1970s BodyType Theory 0 William Sheldon gt Model of Somatotyping o Somatotyping linking body type to risk for delinquency and criminal behavior 0 3 body types I Endomorph jollylazy I Mesomorph risktakingaggressiveathletic gt most likely to behave criminally I Ectomorph introvertedshy Travis Hirschi and IQ Testing 0 1970s Hirschi began examining the effect of intelligence on delinquent youth 0 His findings intelligence had a significant effect on delinquency and criminality among youth 0 IQs of delinquent youth were 10 points lower than nondelinquent youth Rise of Sociological Theories 0 Around the late 1800searly 1900s there was a growth of cities and industry urbanization that was the result of the Industrial Revolution 0 Led to overcrowding poor work conditions bad living conditions 0 Social changes were implicated in the rise of crime I New idea that forces outside of a person s control could result in himher acting wcriminal behavior 0 Forces environment factors gt family culture social norms 0 University of Chicago research 0 Conducted research to understand crime not by focusing on the individual but by studying collective groups I Taking a sociological approach 0 Ernest Burgess and the quotConcentric Zone Model I Bullseye looking model with 5 ringszones o Epicenter zone 1 factory 0 Outer ring zone 5 suburbs o as one moved away from the epicenter the crime rate decreased 0 most crime occurred in zone 2 or the Zone of Transition I Social disorganization in zone 2 due to 0 Factory workers lived in that zone 0 Poverty rapid population growth transiency 0 Youth joined gangs and did vice activities 0 learned criminal behavior 0 differential association theory I Edwin Sutherland I Crime is a byproduct of one s environment I quotlearned criminality 0 Criminal behavior is learned through interaction with people who engage in criminal behavior New Biological Theories 0 Focus on broad range of biological factors that could influence crime 0 Genetics injuries toxin exposure birth defects 0 There is no single quotcrime gene 0 BUT there are some genes that have been seen to make people have traits that are more conducive to criminal behavior such as aggression violence impulsivity etc 0 Adrian Raine 0 Neurocriminology gt link brain functionsbrain disorders and crime I Provide a biological basis for crime 0 Criminal behavior is a mix of social and biological factors I Crime coin wtwo sides gt one side is social and other side is biological 0 There are genes that increase the odds that some people will have criminal behavior predispositions Genetic biological factors 0 Molecular Biology 0 Examine gene variations 0 MAOA Gene quotWarrior Gene I Low activity in the MAOA gene has been linked to someone having more aggressive and violent behavior I Precedent has been set for lawyers to argue that low MAOA gene activity makes a person not at total fault for their actions NonGenetic biological factors 0 Environmental Toxins 0 Chemicals and metals I Main toxin lead gt has been shown to increase aggression and delinquency among young boys if in high concentrations in the body 0 Diet and Crime 0 Behavioral issues can stem from deficiencies in certain foodsmineralsvitamins I Lack of Omega 3 fatty acids I Lack of Magnesium gt shown to lead to hyperactivity I Lack of Zinc gt shown to lead hyperactivity I supplementing the diet ofjuvenile delinquents wthese three things has been shown to decrease hyperactivity and violenceaggression
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