Chapter 25 - BIOL1320
Chapter 25 - BIOL1320 BIOL 1320
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ailia Owen on Monday February 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1320 at University of Houston taught by Brian C Mahon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 160 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Ch 25 Control of Body Temp and Water Balance21615 442p Bears in hibernation Physiological processes aid in homeostasis keeping body temperature about 5 C below normal 0 Body fat and fur insulation 0 Blood flow to extremities is reduced Nitrogencontaining wastes are metabolized differently Homeostasis maintenance of steady internal conditions despite fluctuations in the external environment 0 Thermoregulation maintenance of internal temperature within normal limits tolerable range 0 Ectothermic get body heat from outside sources Fish amphibians lizards and most invertebrates o Endothermic get body heat from metabolism Birds mammals insects 0 Heat exchange with the environment Conduction transfer of heat by direct contact cold seat Convection transfer of heat by movement of airliquid past a surface wind Radiation the emission of electromagnetic waves sun Evaporation loss of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules as a gas 0 5 adaptations Increased metabolic heat production hormonal changes boost metabolic rate birdsmammals n Shivering Bees cluster and shiver n Increase physical activity Insulation hair feathers fat layers Circulatory adaptations increaseddecreased blood flow to skin a Countercurrent heat exchange warm arteries from core and cold blood veins to core flowing in opposite directions Evaporative cooling sweating panting spreading fluids on body surfaces Behavioral responses moving into sunshade migration bathing n Endotherms and ectotherms Osmoregulation control of the gain and loss of water and solutes O Osmoconformers body fluid with a solute concentration equal to seawater No challenge in water balance invertebrate marine life Osmoregulators body fluid with a solute concentration that differs from the environment Actively regulate water movement land mammals humans 7580 water a face dehydration I lose water by evaporation and waste disposal a gain water by drinkingeating n conserve water reproduction and behavior adaptations waterproof skin and effective kidneys freshwater fish a gain water by osmosis through gills I lose salt by diffusion u take in salt by gills and food a excrete excess water by dilute urine Seawater fish n Lose water by osmosis from gills and body surface a Drink seawater I Use gills and kidneys to excrete excess salt sharks Excretion disposal of nitrogencontaining wastes animals dispose of wastes in different ways 0 O Metabolism produces toxic byproducts Nitrogen wastes toxic breakdown products of proteins and nucleic acids Ammonia NH3 poisonous too toxic to be stored in body soluble in water easily disposed of by aquatic animals o Urea produced in vertebrate liver combining ammonia and C02 less toxic easier to store highly water soluble o Uric Acid relatively nontoxic insoluble in water uses a lot of energy to produce excreted by some land animals as a semisolid paste to conserve water a insects land snails many reptiles Proteins gt Amino acids Nitrogen bases lt Nucleic acid NH2 amino groups Most aquatic animals Mammals sharks Birds reptiles most bony fish amphibians insects land snails some bony fish Ammonia Uric acid Urea Urinary system many roles in homeostasis Forms and excretes urine Regulates water and solutes in body fluid Aorta Inferior vena cava 0 Renal artery 0 Renal vein Kidneys main processing centers 0 Nephrons functional units of kidneys Extract filtrate from blood Refine filtrate to produce urine Orientation of n Renal cortex outer Bowman s capsule filtration occurs Tubule exchange of solutes 0 Renal artery n Renal medulla inner get water back 0 Collecting duct to renal pelvis 0 Renal vein a Renal pelvis o Urine travels through Ureters drain from kidneys Urinary bladder stores Urethra expels from body 0 Failure from hypertension diabetes and prolonged use of common drugs alcohol Dialysis machine artificial kidney removes waste from blood and maintains solute concentration Filtration blood pressure forcer water and many small molecules through capiary wall into the start of the kidney tubule Reabsorption refines filtrate o Reclaims valuable solutes glucose salt amino acids Returns to blood 0 Proximal and distal tubes removes Nutrients salt water 0 High NaCI in medua promotes reabsorption of water Secretion substances in the blood are transported into the filtrate Excretion urine final product expelled from body pH balance 0 reabsorb HCO3 o secretes H ADH antidiuretic hormone regulates the amount of water excreted by kidneys by o Signaling nephrons to reabsorb water from the filtrate returning it to blood 0 Decreases amount of water excreted o Diuretics inhibit release of ADH alcohol caffeine 21615 442 PM Explain how bear physiology adjusts during dormancy Describe four ways that heat is gained or lost by an animal Describe five categories of adaptations that help animals thermoregulate Compare the osmoregulatory problems of freshwater fish saltwater fish and terrestrial animals Compare the three ways that animals eliminate nitrogenous wastes Describe the structure and functions of the human kidney Explain how the kidney promotes homeostasis Describe four major processes that produce urine Describe the key events in the conversion of filtrate into urine Explain why a dialysis machine is necessary and how it works
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