Chapter 4 Reading Notes
Chapter 4 Reading Notes PSYC2012
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Lowe on Monday February 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC2012 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Duval in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 190 views.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Reading Social Psychology Chapter 4 Social Perception How We Come to Understand Other People Social Perception study of how one forms impressions of others and how one makes conclusions about them Nonverbal Communication how people communicate unintentional or intentional without words Facial expressions tone gestures body position use of touch gaze etc Facial Expressions and Emotion Encode expressing nonverbal behavior All humans make the same face when expressing various emotions smiling when happen frowning when sad Decode interpreting the meaning of nonverbal behavior that other people express Knowing that smiling means someone is happy frowning means they re sad There are 6 major emotions that are consistently shown across all cultures Happiness Sadness Disgust Anger Surprise and Fear Even blind babies make these same faces despite never having seen others make the expressions Affect Blends one part of their face registers one emotion while another part registers a different emotion This is why decoding can sometimes be inaccurate If someone throws a surprise party for you you may have a mix of surprise and happiness If someone says something that is both horrible and inappropriate you may have a mix of disgust and anger Display Rules what kinds of emotional expressions people are supposed to show varies by culture In the US men are discouraged from showing sadness like crying Other channels of nonverbal communication Most of these are strongly shaped by culture Emblems nonverbal gestures that have wellunderstood meanings within a certain culture usually have verbal equivalents Example Flicking someone off with your middle finger which also has a verbal equivalent Implicit Personality Theory type of schema used to group together various types of personality traits together 2 main types of this Warmth kind person is thought to also be generous trustworthy and helpful but a cold person is thought to be the opposite Competence capable cando person is also seen as powerful and dominant but an incompetent person is the opposite Attribution Theory how people explain causes of their own or other people s behavior Internal Attribution inference that a person is acting a certain way because of something about that person like attitude or personality Example if a father is yelling at his young daughter it is because it is his normal disposition personality attitudes or character that causes his behavior External Attribution inference that a person is acting a certain way because of something about the situation they are in it is assumed that most people would act the same way in that situation Example if a father is yelling at his young daughter it is because the daughter did something really wrong and needed to be yelled at like walking out into the road without looking lnternal attributions usually lead to insight about a person where as external attributions don t usually teach us anything about a person Covariation Model theory stating that to form an attribution of what caused someone s behavior we systematically note the pattern between the presence or absence of possible causal factor and whether or not the behavior occurs You will examine multiple instances of behavior occurring at different times and in different situations to answer what the cause of the behavior is Example your friend will not lend you her car why Does she normally lend you other things Does she lend it to other people Has she refused to let you use the car in the past 3 key types of information consensus distinctiveness and consistency Consensus Information extent to which other people behave the same way toward the same stimulus as the actor does Example Do other people not let friends borrow their cars Distinctiveness Information extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli Example Does this friend normally let me borrow other things Consistency Information extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances Example Has this friend let me borrow her car in the past Internal Attribution is usually made with LOW consensus LOW distinctiveness HIGH consistency External Attribution is usually made with HIGH consensus HIGH distinctiveness HIGH consistency When consistency is low we cannot usually make a clear internal or external attribution but assume there is an outlying factor causing the behavior Example This friend just got her car repaired from a serious accident and does not want to let anyone drive it Fundamental Attribution Theory tendency to overestimate the extent to which people s behavior is due to internal dispositional factors and to underestimate the role of situational factors In other words we think behavior is caused by who someone is versus the situation they are in Example Someone blatantly ignores you when you talk to them but it is actually because they have their headphones in and can t hear you Perceptual Salience people s tendency to pay attention to one s behavior thinking they alone caused it instead of considering the situation Based on our visual point of view TwoStep Process we use this when making attributions first analyzing other s behavior with an automatic internal attribution and then thinking about possible situational reasons for their behavior after which someone may adjust their original internal attribution It is not uncommon that we skip the second step or that we do not adjust the original internal attribution enough This is because the second step requires more effort and conscious attention Cultural differences in the fundamental attribution error Western cultures tend to consider dispositional internal explanations for behaviors versus situational external explanations Easter cultures tend to consider situational explanations for behaviors versus dispositional explanations Because eastern cultures are more collectivist and western cultures are more individualist It is not that either culture only does one or the other it is just the rates at which they do each one SelfServing Attributions explanations for one s successes to be because of dispositional but explanations for one s failures to be situational Usually done when selfesteem is threatened like receiving a bad grade on a test and blaming it on having a bad teacher versus just being bad at that subject 3 main reasons people do this To maintain selfesteem Wanting people to think highly of us and to admire us Earlier outcomes of the same situation Usually doing well on test but then doing bad on one Defensive Attributions explanations for behavior that defend us from feelings of vulnerability and mortality Explained by this Belief in a Just World people s assumption that people get what they deserve Bias Blind Spot tendency to think that other people are more susceptible to attributional biases in their thinking that we are We think others use selfserving biases more than we ourselves get
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