Popular in American Foreign Policy
POL S 321
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Renae Notetaker on Monday February 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POL S 321 at University of Washington taught by Robin Datta in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
Reviews for POLS321_NOTES.pdf
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/16/15
POLS 321 American Foreign Policy WK 2 01212015 WHAT Is FOREIGN POLICY quotAmerica s foreign policy is the goals and or objectives that US policy makers seek to attain abroad the values that give rise to those goals and the means through which said goalsobjectives are pursuedquot A system of laws regulatory measures courses of actions and funding priorities concerning a given topic made known by a governmental entity or its representatives 0 Policy is the result of a system whose process is de ned and in uenced by norms rules procedures stakeholders and containers 0 Policy is something that is purposely made to solve or address a given issue or problem 0 The norms rules goals that guide policy making are heavily in uenced by the executive and legislative branches public opinion and interest groups Refers to the fact that there are many groups that attempt to in uence what states do o 1 Diplomatic 2 Economic 0 Economic problems in one state or one sector can ripple throughout the global economy and policy makers must attempt to deal with the effects 0 3 GeoStrategic Contemporary international interactions contain more than the nationstate Nonstate actors terrorist groups pirates MCNs operate in the margins between states and pose challenges to the ability of individual states and of the international community to address those challenges Nongovernmental Organizations human rights monitoring global health groups operate in areas and in ways that put pressure on the way governments conduct foreign policy either by independently monitoring or working in an area or by exposing governmental activities Intergovernmental Organizations represent attempts to go quotbeyond the nationstatequot in order to engage in collective action around certain issuesproblems quotCivil nationalism that promotes values like democracy liberty law egalitarianism and individualismquot the devotion to which can often lead to a messianic tendency and chauvinism THERIES AND WORLD VIEWS A systematic or organized way of going about explaining some phenomenon AND a guide to action Democracies do not ght each other and will not be aggressive towards each other therefore the way to peace is to engage in policies that aid in the development and preservation of democracy What are the functions and the goals of theory 1 Description Study casesevents to build larger picture 2 Prediction Analytical study reasoning 3 Prescription What ought to be done THREE GENERAL WAYS OF SEEING THE WORLD 0 Universal and Human Connection 0 LiberalIdealism 0 Democratic Peace Theory 0 Good vs Evil Us vs Them 0 Black and White Thinking The good will always triumph the bad 0 Realism o Amoral Pragmatism Amoral Competition for Survival Individuals states are pitted against each other for a prize forced to makebreak alliance in order to secure short term bene ts is the result of a complex interplay of domestic factors and actors within the larger context of stateactor interaction in the international system Foreign Policy can be characterized as quotintermesticquot o Intermestic The connection between international and domestic affairs United States and the Soviet Union 0 Consequences 0 There was a reduction of hostilities between the US and the Soviet Union Began armcontrol talks limiting nuclear testing and created hotline between White House and Kremlin for usage during crises 1 Statist What happens within the government 2 Societal How society impinges on policy 3 Individual How decisionmakers see the world 0 The Theory quotThe domestic political arrangements shape the character of foreign policyquot 0 The Argument quotA state s form of government impacts its relations with other states and actors in the International Systemquot 0 Pluralism The theory that a multitude of groups not people as a whole govern the United States These orgnaizations which include civil rights activists business and nancial lobbies unions etc in uence the making and administration of laws and policy o 1 Public Opinion 0 2 Interest Groups 0 3 Political Parties 0 Military Industrial Congressional Complex Eisenhower 1961 Farewell Speech concerned about the antidemocratic nature of a permanent arms industry and the political in uence it would wield in the American political process 0 Iron Triangles A mutually bene cial relationship between policy makers elites industries and the institutions of government gt Three possible explanations for what happened during the Cuban Missile Crisis 1 Everything was the result of rational actors acting in their best interest 2 The conduct of the crisis was the result of organizational structure and the various rules that govern speci c organizations 3 More complex bureaucratic model occurred 0 1 Operational Codes 0 2 Stress 3 Cognition o 4 Attribution 5 Heuristics 1 How did the United States become a global power 2 What cultural quotstampquot characterizes United States foreign policy 3 How does this quotstampquot guide United States foreign policy going forward 1 Exceptionalism US is qualitatively different from other nationstates 2 Expansionism 3 Isolationism o a making of a new world or quotmaking of a new Jerusalemquot o Nationalism quotwe are a beacon of freedom everyone wants to be like us we are betterquot 0 A call to purpose we do great thingsquot 0 quotManifest Destinyquot Picture Expansion from the eastern to the western seaboard 0 Elements of the quotManifest Destinyquot 0 1 The notion that the American people and institutions are superior and exceptional o 2 There exists a mission to spread these institutions thereby redeeming the world and remaking it in the American image 0 3 This mission is the ful llment of God s work and therefore desUny gt 0 America should be considered during that time period to be a country of unilateralism rather than isolationism because isolationism is often referred to as quotturning your back on other countriesquot However in George Washington s farewell speech he quoted quotThe United States should honor it s current relationships but not undertake further entanglementsquot o Periods in which the public withdraws from foreign affairs in favor of domestic concerns Ex nterwar Period 1920 s 1930 s quotAmerica s Firstquot movement o Attempted to keep the United States from intervening in the growing con ict in Europe in the late 1930 s Ex The failure of the United States Senate to ratify the League of Nations Focused on domestic problemsaffairs rather than international affairs including the League of Nations o 1 Geography provided a basis for isolationist and nativist thinking 0 Because the US could expand from quotsea to seaquot and was bounded on each shore by thousands of miles of ocean essentially meant that the country could develop anonymously But despite that America was involved with Russia over Oregon and Alaska China because of trade and Spain Britain and other European powers So therefore the US can t be considered as Isolationists during that time period because although they wanted to stay out of international affairs they were still involved through trade and land accumulation THE LEGACY OF THE WAR OF 1812 0 Primary Cause American anger with Britain Britain was involved with a major European war with forces of Napolean Major sea war going on 0 Britain was stopping American ships and American men 0 Britain was trying to create policies that would prevent shipping from America to France and America relied on trade at the time and were still angry at Britain from the American Revolution And Americans were angry that Britain was treating America like a colony still 0 Most important thing to get out of the war from American perspective Independence 0 Britain was trying to stop American expansionism to prevent them from becoming superpower o Domino Effect of the War The War was fought on two fronts Northern borderlines of Canada and the Southern borderlines of Spanish Countries and Native American territories essentially o The war paved a way for American expansionism o Domino Effect was that the war created a lot of hostilities in the South that continued after the war 0 There was an American occupation of Spanish territory during the war 0 Indian war over Creek confederacy 0 Those con icts actually continues up into the year 1818 because of the resentment that the war stirred up 0 It meant that the South expanded to the Antebellum period before World War 1 Stony Creek Good example of repeated attempts of America trying to invade Canada Many Americans think Canada should be part of the US mentality that goes back before American Revolution Canadians view of the War A part of their independence because they fought off American forces 0 How the tensions that exists between these views guides policy today 0 Creating a large treaty nation strong economy using the power of the government What 0 Foster economic expansion Cultivates allies open markets freedom of the seas Then 0 Freedom of the Seas and the Barbary Pirate Wars 0 Confrontation with Britain during the Civil War over confederate shipping using British harbors Opening Japan and China by military force for American trade Now 0 quotShowing the agquot 0 WWI shipping quarrels with Germany America thinks they should be able to trade with anybody Root cause of the quarrel 0 Showing the Flag in the Persian Gulf 1980 s and 1990 s 0 Operation Marine Shield CounterPiracy Operations off coast of Somalia Liberal Idealist Internationalist What 0 The United States should focus on the making the world safer for democracy Focuses on value of selfdetermination Countries should be able to determine their own fate direction without interference of external powers Democracy is good 0 Prevention of War using Institutional Arrangements Internationalist Then 0 Missionary Tradition Fix and ratify the world Very religious view o Pushing for selfdeterminiation and DeColonialization Two types of Wilsonians 0 Right Wilsonians Neoconservative United States has ful lled its promise but now needs to protect itself and position It s values are deserving of being spread Radical Wilsonians We must act to reform ourselves while we seek to reform others We cannot go reform others until our house is in order Deeply concerned of corrupting in uence of large military high taxes etc These things can destroy democracy What Democracy is a fragile plant Two Threats 1 What those foreign governments can do TO us 2 The things we do to ourselves as we seek to defend ourselves from others gt Because of the two threats there has been the presence in foreign policy including in 0 American AntiImperialism League If America became an imperial power America would become less democratic 0 Initial resistance for intervention in WWI 0 Initial resistance to use force during the Iranian Crisis AntiSecrecy and Consitutional basis for Foreign Policy Torture Controversy starting w Bush Administration 0 Basically reactive and ruthless What Ruthlessness Suspicious of elites Pessimistic of quotlasting peacequot Skeptical of quotHamiltonian and Wilsoniansquot Codes Honor Equality and Individualism Then 0 American Folk 0 The quotGreat Assimilationquot Idea that people come to America Wars of expansion frontier con ict Now 0 Mass Popular Patriotism and Martial Spirit currently going on jeffersonians and jacksonians v Hamiltonians and Wilsonians quotJeffersonians and Jacksonians would be happy if the rest of the world became more like the US though they don t nd this likely They resist however any thought of the US becoming more like the rest of the world If the US makes even such trivial concessions to international order as adopting the metric system it will be because of Hamiltonian and Wilsonian efforts In very different ways Jeffersonians and Jacksonians believe that the speci c cultural social and political heritage of the US is a precious treasure to be conserved defended and passed on to future generations they celebrate what they see as the unique and uniquely valuable elements of American life and believe that the object of foreign policy should be to defend those values at home rather than extend them abroadquot Why should we care about World War 1 1 World War 1 changed the map of Europe in very deep ways 0 Removed four empires from the global map Germany Hungary Russia and Ottoman Empire 2 Though the United States had already emerged as a major international player WWI marked a solidi cation freezing of that status 0 Even though the United States tried to originally stay out of the war and even though WWl challenged the ethnic mix of the United States the United States was eventually drawn into the war thanks to the Zimmerman note Germany asking Mexico to join alliance when the US entered the war 3 Americans were reluctant to go to war but did so because Woodrow Wilson decided this was a war to end all wars and a war to make the world safe for democracy This belief went against the beliefs of the British and Germany 4 WWI set the terms for the ideological struggle that dominated the remains of the 20th century Struggle between Liberalism Fascism and Communism gt Realism comes as a critique of idealism
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'