The Biology of Behavior and Visual Perception
The Biology of Behavior and Visual Perception PSY 110
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Serena Buckley on Monday February 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 110 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Rod Gillis in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see PSY 110 - Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
The Biological Basis of Behavior II The Neuron cell body soma dendrite branches receive signals Axon vary in length surrounded by myelin sheath lnformation flows to terminal bers swelling in the bottomterminal bud AThe Synapse neura impulse releases neurotransmitters into gap known as the quottraf c copquot B Neurotransmitterssynthesized in the neuron 1 Acetylcholine 2 Norepinephrine 3 Dopamine 4 Serotonin 5 Gammaaminobutyric acid GABA C Neuromodulatorsthese effect neurons but are not released by neurons Are received by blood stream Natural Opioids EndorphinSreleased by exercise Ill The Brain A Imaging techniques Ussue 1 CAT or CT 2 PETpositron emission tomography 3 MRI and FMRImagnetic resonance imaging Shows detailed pictures of soft 4 Lesions stimulation and recording B Overview of Brain 1 Cerebral Cortex Cerebrum Neocortex Left amp Right hemispheres 2 Corpus Callosumthick bundle of bers that connects the left and right hemispheres 3 Contralateral Connection 4 Cerebellumalso has a left and right hemisphere C The Cerebral Cortex 1 Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex a Broca s areacontrols motor skills of speech b Wernike s areacontrols language comprehension C Primary Visual Cortex PVCthe geography of the visual eld is retained here d Visual Association Cortex VACrecognition of images e Central Fissure Motor and Sensory regions 1 Brain plasticitywhen other portions of the brain take over missing responsibilities of other parts of the brain 2 Split Brain and Lateralization cutting the corpus collosum a Left Hemisphere Analysis Verbal activity talking understanding speech reading writing b Rightsynthesis putting elements together perceive whole maps 3D sketch Perception and Attention l Visual perception of form our interpretation of what we see A Figure Ground depending on what you determine to be the gure will determine the picture mind benders B Illusory contours ines that do not really exist our brain creating lines that are not there C Grouping of elements Gestalt laws of grouping 1 Law of Proximity objects that are close together are perceived as belonging together 2 Law of similarity objects that are similar are perceived as belonging together 3 Law of good continuity our brain perceives things as they appear most smoothly 4 Law of closure when we encounter incomplete gures we often complete them in our minds sometimes not even noticing the gaps 5 Law of Common Fate things that move together are perceived as belonging together why animals camou age no longer works when moving ll Depth perception The ability of humans to see in three dimensions A Binocular cues 1 Binocular disparity the difference in image location of an object seen by the left and right eyes 2 Convergence the strain on the muscles and ligaments around the eyes when one is focusing on an object B Monocular cues 1 Motion Parallax the illusion that objects at a greater distance are moving slower than those closer 2 Elevation above horizon the closer something may be to the horizon the further away it may be 3 Interposition when one object partially obscures or blocks our view of another object the former object must be closer Linear Perspective parale lines seem to converge in the distance Aerial Perspective objects in the distance will become hazier Relative brightness objects in the foreground will appear brighter Texture Gradient objects that are generally the same size will become smaller and smaller as they enter the distance 8 Shading provides us additional information about distance 5 Uquot39gt lll Perceptual Constancy A Size constancy even though things may appear to be different sizes we can decipher that they are the same size based on distance B Shape constancy our ability to see things as the same shape from different perspectives C Brightness constancy the brightness of an object is viewed the same either in a bright or dim light IV Models of Perception 1 TopDown processing we see the whole rst without noticing the details 2 Bottomup processing we use details to construct the whole V Attention a process in our mind that helps us focus on things in our environment deals with our frontal lobe in the brain people are more sensitive to their own names and swear words
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