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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Serena Buckley on Monday February 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 110 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Rod Gillis in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see PSY 110 - Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Chapter 6Learning l Six Different kinds of Learning 1 HabituationSensitization habituation is when after a repeated stimulus nothing bad occurs the organism will be habituated to no longer respond to the stimulus ex a dog hearing a strange noise and begin barkingreacting strongly If this happens again and nothing happens again then the animal will stop responding sensitization is when after a stimulus something bad occurs the organism will become sensitized 2 Classical ConditioningPavlovian ConditioningAssociative Learning ex a dog associating a bell with food when association occurs between two stimuli not the only kind of learning 3 Operant Conditioninglnstrumental ConditioningSkinnerian Conditioning involves rewards and punishment good behaviors are rewarded and bad behavior is punished 4 Observational LearningSocial Learninglmitative LearningModeling most recent form of learning learning through observing someone else requires a model and a learner Albert Bandura 5 Insight Learning Kohler s apes learning by thinking and coming to a conclusion that may or may not be valid apes guring out that if they stick two sticks together they can reach the bananas 6 Taste Flavor Aversion if you eat something that makes you sick you don t eat it again because hypothetically it could be poison one trial testingmay or may not be valid II More on Classical Conditioning A Ivan Pavlov UCS leads to UCRCS leads to CR UCSunconditioned stimulusCSconditioned stimulus UCRunconditioned responseCRconditioned response Russian physiologist studied dogs digestive systems Learning Curve steep learning curveeasy to earnhow to work at McDonald s slow learning curvehard to earnhow to be president of the USA Acquisition traininga new association has been acquired conditioned stimulus elicits same response as unconditioned stimulus Extinction trainingthe association has been extinguished after removal from stimulus Spontaneous Recoveryassociation may spontaneously be recovered after a period of extinction GeneralizationDiscriminationapplying learning from one situation to another similar situation BThera py Phobias Watson Counterconditioning it is believed that phobias are sometimes learned quotFat Albertquot study of scaring children with rats Systematic Desensitization Wolfe is this phobia interfering with your life gradually exposing a person to a stimulus to get them accustomed to it ex Showing people pictures of snakes to make them less frightened Aversive conditioning the technique of making someone sick of a bad habit ex sticking someone in a phone booth lled with cigarette butts and making people smoke cigarettes until they grow sick of them Drug addiction has classical conditioning components that occur subconsciously body expects drug regularlycravings ex Blacklights and Jimmy Hendrix posters are conditioned with drugs lll More on Operant Conditioning A Thorndike and his Puzzle Box researched cats Puzzle Boxcage with a lever that is connected to opening the door of the cage animal will engage in random trial and error behavior cat will learn to press lever to let itself out Law of Effect any behavior followed by a reward will be more likely to occur in the future and conversely any behavior followed by a punishment will be less likely to occur in the future RewardReinforcementanything that makes the behavior of interest more likely to occur Punishmentanything that makes the behavior of interest less likely to occur Negative Reinforcement taking away something bad ex Releasing a man from jail on parole two years early for good behavior not a punishment Primary and Secondary Reinforcement primary reinforcementthings that are naturally reinforcing and are necessary to live ex Food water sex shelter secondary reinforcementthings that are learned to desire ex Money status B Skinner s Operant Conditioning Chamber most closely associated with operant conditioning The Skinner BoxOperant Conditioning Chamber manipulating level of reward of getting out of a box automated learning systems Manipulandum lever Schedules of Reinforcement 1 Continuous Reinforcement rat will be rewarded every time it presses the lever 2 Partial Reinforcement not reinforcing on every trial a Fixed Ratiodeals with proportions of reward every tenth time animal gets reward b Variable Ratiodeals with proportions of reward on average is rewarded 110 times C Fixed Intervalbased on time every certain amount of time animal will be rewarded d Variable Intervalbased on time an animal will be rewarded on average once an hour Resistance to extinction once a behavior is learned we would like for it to resist extinctionfor the animal to retain learned behaviors ShapingSuccessive Approximation reinforcing steps on the way to the desired behavior ex Childhood learning teaching addition in hopes of forming a mathematician Chaining do not confuse chaining and shaping stringing a number of behaviors together in an interesting way ex Teaching a bird to climb a latter ring a bell then slide down a pole and then add them together only reinforcing after the next consecutive event Superstitious behavior as reinforcement approaches random set four pigeons on schedules of reinforcement that were random pigeons would press the level continuously and only occasionally food would follow pigeons formed beliefs as to what caused the reward and researcher observed that they were each doing a superstitious dance to receive food all superstitious behavior has to do with random reinforcement schedules AcquisitionExtinction Discrimination and Generalization apply also C Applications to behavior problems Behavior Modi cationBehavioral therapy a therapy technique using any learning theory to improve behavior Token economyBiofeedback IV More on Observational LearningSocial Learninglmitative LearningModeling Albert Bandura BoBo Doll studies 1965 chidren watch teacher beat up 3030 doll and then imitate kids who watch and play aggressive games tend to be more aggressive Notrial learning Vicarious reward and punishment the learner is not punished or rewarded directly they watch someone else be rewarded or punished for the same actions and act accordingly Distinction between learning and behavior behavior is how someone acts without any previous knowledge base of the situation with learning the person has experience with the subject