CM Chapter 2
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ethan Reynolds on Monday February 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Ohio State University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Session 5 1 Types of Soil Classification System a Technical i Single Property 1 Provides information about a particular attribute ii Special purpose 1 Considers a limited range of soil properties known to be important for a particular use or objective b Natural comprehensive i Based on all major characteristics Without a specific objective in mind ii Determines its like other groups of soils or if it isn t 11 Natural Classification Systems a US Soil Taxonomy i Hierarchical system 1 Like in biology ecosystem community population individual ii We have very fine criteria for determining differences in soil to classify the soil appropriately iii Class names suggest properties iv Diagnostic horizons 1 Epipedons a Surface soil 2 Subsurface v Particle Size various types of minerals b Epipedons i Diagnostic surface horizons 1 Mollic mollissoft a Easy to use for agriculture b Dark colored i Means it has high organic matter c gt1 organic matter d At least 25 cm 10 thick 6 gt50 base saturation moderate to good productivity potential i Has a good base of cations 1 Ca2 Mg2 K Na 2 Ochric Greek ochros pale a Anything that is not mollic 3 Histic a Organic b Found in wetlands c Subsurface horizons i Camic Latin cambiare to change 1 BW B g 2 Little color chance ii Argillic Latin argilla clay 1 As the process of Illuviation downward movement 2 Look for evidence that the clay that has got there has moved down the horizon iii Spodic Greek spodos wood ash 1 Accumulation of translocated organic matter Bh humus rich horizon in the subsoil iv OXic French oxyde oxide 1 Accumulation of iron or aluminum oxides 2 Other things have been removed over a long period of time v Calcic 1 Accumulation of CaCO3 2 Not usually in Ohio vi Fragipan 1 Cementing agents that hold the soil together 2 Brittle horizon probably due to accumulation of amorphous cementing agents BX 3 Plant roots will not go into fragipan III Soil Climate a b D Based on effective precipitation Aquic Latin for Agna water i Saturated with water long enough that reducing conditions prevail ii For ability to grown in Aquic soil you must drain the soil iii Organic matter concentrated in the surface iv Grey colors because of reduction v Can occur anywhere where there is effective precipitation vi Can occur in Ohio Udic Latin for ndus humid i Sufficient moisture in most years for rainfed dryland crop production ii Can occur in Ohio Ustic Latin for nstus burnt i Moisture limited but adequate in growing season for some crops ii Common crop is wheat Xeric Latin for xeros dry i Cool moist winters warm dry summer Mediterranean climate ii Without irrigation crop production limited to springearly summer iii Good for grapes olives pistachios Aridic i Too dry all year IV Soil Temperature Regimes a b Pergelic i lt0 degrees C lt32 degrees F ii Too cold for crops Frigid i 0 8C 3246F ii Too cold for crops Mesic i 815C 4659F ii Corn Thermic i 1522C 5972F ii Cotton iii Tobacco Hyperthermic i gt22 C gt72F ii Citrus iii Sugar Cane V Other Diagnostic Criteria a b 0 Average particle size in major part of soil profile Mineralogy Base saturation VI Soil Taxonomy hierarchy a b c d e f g Order 12 Suborder 63 Great Group 250 Subgroup 1400 Family 8000 Series 19000 Phase 19000
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