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Intro to Physiology Week 2 notes

by: AlexandraRita Notetaker

Intro to Physiology Week 2 notes NPB 010

Marketplace > University of California - Davis > Neuroscience > NPB 010 > Intro to Physiology Week 2 notes
AlexandraRita Notetaker
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About this Document

Week 2 notes
Elementary Human Physiology
Dr. Bautista
Class Notes
neurophysiology, neurobiology, notes
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by AlexandraRita Notetaker on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NPB 010 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. Bautista in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Elementary Human Physiology in Neuroscience at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 04/19/16
Human  Physiology     Day  1  (March  29)  Introduction-­‐     Physiology:  the  study  of  how  things  work  in  the  body   -­‐Regulations  of  our  parts   -­‐Cells,  tissues  and  our  organs  they  all  work  together:   Interdependence   -­‐Anatomy  –  Naming  things,  describing  things.  Names  the  parts  of  the   body.     -­‐Our  cells  require  each  other  in  order  to  live   -­‐We  are  multicellular  organisms                  -­‐we  can  be  complex   -­‐we  face  “challenges”  alter  our  internal  environment  e.g.  “ to  hot”  -­‐>  we  can   compensate   Homostasis:  “Keeping  the  internal  environment  relatively  constant”.   1.  Tb-­‐98.6  degrees  F  (37  degrees  C)  =  Body  Temperature   2.  Fuel  (glucose)  in  blood  =70  mg/100ml  of  blood   3.  3.  Amount  of  NA+  in  the  blood  is  about  145mM   4.  Amount  of  oxygen  in  the  blood  =  100  mmHG   Blood  is  transferred  through  the  capillary  and  exchanges  properties  through   the  blood  and  fluid  in  the  cells  (extracellular  fluid).       What  happens  if  they  is  a  disturbance?     -­‐Activate  homeostatic  reflex  loop  -­‐>  A  response  it  counters  the  disturbance     Example:  Tb  gets  to  high  (100  degrees  F)  <-­‐  this  is  the  disturbance   Sensory  receptors  receive  the  body  temp  and  sends  information  through  an   afferent  pathway  to  the  central  processor.  And  compares  the  high  temp  to   the  set  temperature  98.6.    The  central  processor  sends  info  through  n   efferent  pathway  to  control  an  organ  that  is  turned  on  because  of  the   disturbance  known  as  an  effector  organ.    This  is  known  as  negative   feedback.       Day  2  March  31  (Cells,  Tissues,  and  Organs)   Classifications   1.  Protiens   2.  Carbohydrates   3.  Fats   4.  Nucleic  Acids   -­‐H2O,  O2,  Co2   -­‐Molecules:  are  atoms  that  are  joined  by  bonds.   -­‐Atom:  1.  Nucleaus  -­‐>  Protons  and  Nuetrons                              2.  Electrons  -­‐>  surround  the  outside  the  nucleus  and  are  negative                              3.  Protons  have  the  only  positive  charge  in  the  nucleus       Bonds   1.  Covalent  Bond:  Two  shared  electrons     2.  Ionic  Bond:  atoms  that  were  transformed     Into  ions.                     Ex.  Na+  +  Cl-­‐  à  NaCl  molecule  (Ionic  Molocule  can  be  broken  apart  by  H2O   2       3.  Hydrogen  Bond:  a  hydrogen  in  one  molecule  is  attracted  to  a  negative   charge  on  another  molecule.                 Metabolism-­‐  Chemical  reactions  that  occur  in  living  things     1.  Anabolism   2.  Catabolism     ATP  (adenosine  Triphosphate)  àEnergy  currency/money  of  the  cells.     à  broken  down  à  energy  is  released     Ex.  A  +  B  +ATP  à  C  +  ADP  and  Pi   Catabolism:  is  breaking  something  down   Ex.  ATP  à  ADP  +Pi   EX2.  Glucose  +O2  à  à  à  Co2  +  H2O                                                                                                                                Heat   Glucose                                        Pi                                              C       CO2+H2O                                             ATP                   +B                                        A                                                      Heat                                 3       Anabolism:  Making  things     Ex.  ADP  +  Pi  à  ATP          Energy   Lots  of  Glucose  molocules  à  à  à  Starch  or  glycogen                           Thermodynamics:  study  of  energy  involved  in  a  chemical  reaction.     Reactants                Product     A+B          à  à  à        C     A  +  B         Day  3  (April  5 )  Cells  Continued     Cell  Membrane  =  wall   1.  Plasma  membrane   2.  Found  in  same  organelles   -­‐made  up  of  phospholipids         4       Transport  Proteins   •   Found  in  membrane  and  allows  molecules  or  ions  to  cross  the   membrane     -­‐channels  don't  require  energy  in  order  to  transport  something   -­‐transporters  sometimes  need  ATP   Plasma  Membrane   •   Type  of  cell  membrane  surrounds   the  cell     •   Cytoplasm:  Liquid  jelly  like   environment  inside  cells   •   Fuels:  Glucose,  protein’s,   organelles     Organelles   1.  Nucleus:  has  a  nuclear  envelope  (membrane)  contains  genetic   material     -­‐contains  genetic  material  à  expresses  genetic  material  à   Protein’s  are  created   -­‐DNA-­‐  in  chromosomes  (46)     •   Gene  Expression  =  Read  the  DNA  by  enzymes  (gene  transcription)   -­‐Synthesize  RNA  à  transported  out  of  the  nucleus  à  used  by   another  organelle  to  drive  protein  synthesis  à  protein’s       -­‐Some  protein’s  à  Housekeeping  Protein’s     -­‐Other  Proteins  à  Specialized  protein’s     •   Protein  expression  is  very  well  controlled     2.  Ribosome:  reads  RNA  during  protein  synthesis   à  assembles  amino  acids  into  proteins   -­‐Gene  Translation:  a  ribosome  scans  the  RNA  and  assembles  proteins   5       3.  Endoplasmic  Recticulum: a   network  of  membranous   tubules  within  the  cytoplasm  of   a  eukaryotic  cell,  continuous   with  the  nuclear  membrane.  It   usually  has  ribosomes  attached   and  is  involved  in  protein  and   lipid  synthesis.             4.  Golgi  apparatus: is  found  in   all  plant  and  animal  cells  and   is  the  term  given  to  groups  of   flattened  disc-­‐like  structures   located  close  to  the   endoplasmic  reticulum.       5.  Mitochondira:  an  organelle  found   in  large  numbers  in  most  cells,  in   which  the  biochemical  processes  of   respiration  and  energy  production   occur.  It  has  a  double  membrane;   the  inner  layer  being  folded  inward   to  form  layers  (cristae).       6       Tissue   A  collection  of  cells  that  perform  a  specific  function   1.  Nervous  Tissue-­‐  involced  in  communication     -­‐Fast  and  specific   -­‐Neuron  and  glad  cells     •   Uses  a  communication  signal:  action  potential     2.  Muscle  Tissue  –  Generates  Force  causes  movement.  Control  some   action  in  the  body.     -­‐Skeletal  Muscle:  associsated  with  out  limbs  (voluntarily   controlled)   -­‐Cardiac  Muscle:  in  the  heart  involuntarily  controlled     -­‐Smooth  muscle:  found  in  hollow  organs  e.g.  blood  vessels,   gastrotestinal  tract              3.  Epithecial  Tissue-­‐  Epitheal  cells     -­‐Forms  barriers  between  body  and  environment     -­‐Lines  our  organs     -­‐some  secrete  hormones,  exocrine  secreation                4.  Connective  Tissue:  Fibroblasts,  ground  substance     -­‐support  à  bone,  cartilage   7  


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