Chapter 5 Notes-Consciousness
Chapter 5 Notes-Consciousness
Popular in Course
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Reader was uploaded by Tori Timmons on Sunday April 13, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Washington taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 377 views.
Reviews for Chapter 5 Notes-Consciousness
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 04/13/14
October 19 2013 PSYCH 101 Tori Timmons Chapter 5 Notes 39 Consciousness o Consciousness is a person39s subjective experience of the world and the mind o Although you might think of consciousness as simple being awake the defining feature of consciousness is experience which you have when you are not awake but experiencing a vivid dream o Conscious experience is essential to what it means to be human o It is impossible for one person to experience another s consciousness Your consciousness is utterly private a world of personal experience that only you can know o How can this private world be studied We39ll begin by examining consciousness directly trying to understand what it is like and how it compares with the mind s unconscious processes o Then we39ll examine its altered states the departures from normal everyday waking that occur during altered states such as sleep and dreams intoxication with alcohol and other drugs and hypnosis and meditation o Conscious and Unconscious The Mind s Eye Open and Closed The Mysteries of Consciousness 39 Psychology studies objects looking at people and their brains and behavior but it has the unique challenge of also trying to make sense of the subjects October 19 2013 PSYCH 101 Tori Timmons Psychologists hope to include an understanding of phenomenology how things seem to the conscious person in their understanding of mind and behavior The Problem of Other Minds o One great mystery is called the problem of other minds the fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others o Even the consciousness meter used by anesthesiologists falls short It certainly doesn t give the anesthesiologist any special insight into what it is like to be the patient on the operating table it only predicts whether patients will say they were conscious o The problem of other minds also means there is no way you can tell if another person s experience of anything is at all like yours o How do people perceive other minds Researchers conducting a large online survey asked people to compare the minds of 13 different targets such as a baby chimp robot man and woman on 18 different mental capacities such as feeling pain pleasure hunger and consciousness o The perception of minds the involves more than just whether something has a mind o People appreciate the minds both have experiences and act as agents that perform actions October 19 2013 PSYCH 101 Tori Timmons 39 The MindBody Problem o Another mystery of consciousness is the mindbody problem is issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body o We now know that the mind and brain are connected everywhere to each other In other words the mind is what the brain does o Most psychologists assume that mental events are intimately tied to brain events such that every though perception or feeling is associated with a particular pattern of activation of neurons in the brain o One telling set of studies suggests that the brains activities precede the activities of the conscious mind The electrical activity in the brains of volunteers was measured using sensors placed on their scalps as they repeatedly decided when to move a hand o As a rule the brain begins to show electrical activity around half a second before a voluntary action This makes sense since brain activity certainly seems to be necessary to get an action started o But the experiment revealed that the brain also started to show electrical activity before the person39s conscious decision to move o Although your personal intuition is that you think of an action and then do it these experiments suggest that October 19 2013 PSYCH 101 Tori Timmons your brain is getting started before either the thinking or the doing preparing the way for both thought and action o Quite simple it may appear to us that our minds are leading our brains and bodies but the order of events may be the other way around The Nature of Consciousness Researchers have suggested that consciousness can be described based on its properties its levels and its contents 39 Four Basic Properties o Consciousness has intentionality which is the quality of being directed toward and object Consciousness is always about something o Consciousness has unity or resistance to division Your attempts to watch TV while studying could seriously interfere with your learning o Consciousness has selectivity the capacity to include some objects but not others The cocktail party phenomenon is when people tune in one message even while they filter out others nearby o Consciousness has transience or the tendency to change The stream of consciousness partly reflects the limited capacity of the conscious mind 39 KEY TERMS October 19 2013 PSYCH 101 Tori Timmons Consciousness A person39s subjective experience of the world and the mind Phenomenology How things seem to the conscious person Problem of Other Minds The fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others MindBody Problem The issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body Cocktail Party Phenomenon A phenomenon in which people tune in one message even while they filter out others nearby Minimal Consciousness A low level kind of sensory awareness and responsiveness that occurs when the mind inputs sensations and may output behavior Full Consciousness Consciousness in which you know and are able to report your mental state Self Consciousness A distinct level of consciousness in which the person s attention is drawn to the self as an object Mental Control The attempt to change conscious states of mind Thought Suppression The conscious avoidance of a thought Rebound Effect of Though Suppression The tendency of a thought to return to consciousness with greater frequency following suppression Ironic Processes of Mental Control Mental processes that can produce ironic errors because monitoring for errors can itself produce them Dynamic Unconscious An active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories the person39s deepest instincts and desires and the person s inner struggle to control these forces Repression A mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from consciousness Cognitive Unconscious The mental processes that give rise to the person39s thoughts choices emotions and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person October 19 2013 PSYCH 101 Tori Timmons Subliminal Perception A thought or behavior that is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving Altered States of Forms of experience that depart from the normal subjective Consciousness experience of the world and the mind Circadian Rhythm A naturally occurring 24hour cycle of sleeping and waking REM Sleep A stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and a high level of brain activity Insomnia Difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep Sleep Apnea A disorder in which the person stops breathing for brief periods while asleep Somnambulism Occurs when the person arises and walks around while asleep sleepwalking Narcolepsy A disorder in which sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities Sleep Paralysis The experience of waking up unable to move Night Terrors sleep Abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal terrors Activation Synthesis The theory that dreams are produced when the brain attempts Model to make sense of activations that occur randomly during sleep Psychoactive Drug A chemical that influences consciousness or behavior by altering the brain s chemical message system Drug Tolerance The tendency for larger doses of a drug to be required over time to achieve the same effect Depressants Substances that reduce the activity of the central nervous system Expectancy Theory The idea that alcohol effects can be produced by people s expectations of how alcohol will influence them in particular situations October 19 2013 PSYCH 101 Tori Timmons Alcohol Myopia A condition that results when alcohol hampers attention leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations Stimulants Substances that excite the central nervous system heightening arousal and activity levels Narcotics or Opiates Highly addictive drugs derived from opium that pain Hallucinogens Drugs that alter sensation and perception and often cause visual and auditory hallucinations Marijuana The leaves and buds of the hemp plant Hypnosis An altered state of consciousness characterized by suggestibility and the feeling that one s actions are occurring involuntarily Hypnotic Analgesia The reduction of pain through hypnosis in people who are susceptible to hypnosis Meditation The practice of intentional contemplation