Sociology Exam 4 Notes part 1
Sociology Exam 4 Notes part 1 Soci 20213
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Machuga on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soci 20213 at Texas Christian University taught by Michelle Edwards in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 04/19/16
Julia Machuga Sociology Exam 4 Notes Capitalism Economic system in which property & goods are primarily privately owned Development has been heavily influenced by globalization (from colonialism to contemporary globalization) & technology (ex. agricultural revolution, large-scale factory production) Theories on Capitalism Adam Smith: father of modern economics o Argument: individual self-interest (with others acting similarly, and with some system of basic laws) will lead to competition & eventually produce economic prosperity o Sees free-market economies as the most productive o If everyone is looking out for themselves, competition will rise but it will benefit everyone Karl Marx: o Argument: capitalism produces alienation from the product, from the process, from other people, & from one’s self o The more products people produce, the less they are able to afford o They don’t have much control over how things are produced Max Weber vs. Karl Marx: o They agree that the new world of rationalized efficiency has turned into a monster that threatens to dehumanize its creators o Is it capitalism (private ownership of means of production) or bureaucracy (a rationally coordinated system of production) that leads to workers’ alienation? Mass production: large-scale, highly standardized manufacturing of identical commodities on a mechanical assembly line Weber’s theory of rationality: modern society uses universally- applied laws, regulations, & rules to make decisions Bureaucracy: for Weber, modern bureaucracies are the consequence of rationalization o Characterized by: hierarchical structure, specialized positions & a clear division of labor, well-established formal rules, impersonality, merit-based hiring & promotion From manufacturing to service economy: the service sector has grown rapidly over the last 30 years o Examples: restaurant work, health care provision, higher education, computer tech support, retail Ritzer’s view on rationality: ritzer argues that formal rationality is now best exemplified NOT by bureaucracies but by fast-food restaurants (the “McDonaldization” of society) o Characterized by: Efficiency Calculability Predictability Control through substituting nonhuman technology for human judgment o Irrationality of rationality: rationalization can lead to inefficiency, unpredictability, incalculability & loss of control.’ Most voters are between ages 45-64 Political Parties The U.S. has a two-party politcal system These parties are well established – have existing organizational, leadership & financial networks Use resources to stay in power Dominate media coverage America is such a democracy but the voting process is not, people don’t have that much control Political Polarization Our political leaders (party elite) have become more polarized Makes a middle course less likely The people who think of themselves as democrat/republican are more likely to vote It becomes difficult for Americans who don’t identify as dem/rep. to feel inclined to vote cause they aren’t represented
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