Chapter 7 & 9 Outline
Chapter 7 & 9 Outline Intro to Sociology
University of Pittsburgh at Bradford
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Adams on Monday February 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Intro to Sociology at University of Pittsburgh at Bradford taught by Michael Klausner in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
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O 90 Sociology Chapter 7 Class and Strati cation in the US Social Strati cation the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources Life chances Max Weber s term for the extent to which individuals have access to important societal resources such as food clothing shelter education and health care gt Resources anything valued in a society ex Money property medical care education Considered to be scarce Systems of Strati cation most important characteristic is their degree of exibility gt Social mobility the movement of individuals or groups from one level in strati cation system to another movement can be either upward or downward gt lntergenerational mobility the social movement experienced by family members from one generation to the next gt lntragenerational mobility the social movement of individuals within their own lifetime Slavery an extreme form of strati cation in which some people are owned or controlled by others for the purpose of economic or sexual exploitation The Caste System a system of social inequality in which people s status is permanently determined at birth based on their parents ascribed characteristics gt Apartheid separation of the races The Class System a type of strati cation based on the ownership and control of resources and on the type of work people do gt Horizontal Mobility occurs when people experience a gain or loss in position andor that does not change their class structure gt Vertical Mobility Movement up or down in class structure due to a loss or gain in position andor income 2 Classical Perspectives on Social Class 0339 Karl Marx Relationship to the Means of Production gt Believed that class position and the extent of our income and wealth are determined by our work situation OR our relationship to the means of production gt Two Classes The Capitalists and The Workers gt The Capitalist Class Bourgeoisie Those who own and control the means of production bosses owners managers etc gt The Working Class Proletariat Those who must sell their labor to work for the owners in order to earn enough money to survive gt Alienation a feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from oneself I Superstructure composed of the government schools churches and other social institutions 00 Class Con ict the struggle between the capitalist class and the working class 3 Max Weber Wealth Prestige and Power gt Wealth the value of all of a person s or family s economic assets including income personal property and income producing property Entrepreneurs wealthy bankers ship owners professionals and merchants who possess similar nancial resources Rentiers wealthy individuals who live off their investments and do not have to work gt Prestige the respect or regard with which a person or status position is given by others gt Power the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others gt Socioeconomic Status SES a combined measure that attempts to classify individuals families or households in terms of factors such as income occupation and education to determine class location 2 Contemporary Sociological McElels of the US Class O 06 o 9 Structure The Weberian Model of the US Class Structure gt VVVV Dennis Gilbert uses a model of social classes based on three elements 1 Education 2 Occupation of Family Head 3 Family Income The Upper Capitalist Class The Upper Middle Class The Middle Class The Working Class Pink Collar Occupations Relatively lowpaying nonmanual semiskilled positions primarily held by women ex Daycare workers checkout clerks cashiers restaurant servers The Working Poor The Under Class Under class those who are poor seldom employed and caught in a longterm deprivation that results from low levels of education and income and high rates of unemployment The Marxian Model of the US Class Structure gt gt The Capitalist Class The Managerial Class gt The SmallBusiness Class gt The Working Class 2 Inequality in the United States 0 Distribution of Income and Wealth gt Income Inequality lncome the economic gain derived from wages salaries income transfers governmental aid and ownership of property gt Wealth Inequality 0 Consequences of Inequality gt Physical Health Mental Health and Nutrition gt Housing gt Education 2 Poverty In The United States 2 Of cial Poverty Line the income standard that is based on what the federal government considers to be the minimum amount of money required for living at a subsistent level gt Absolute Poverty exists when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life gt Relative Poverty exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living 0 Who Are The Poor gt Age gt Gender Feminization of poverty the trend in which women are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty gt RaceEthnicity 0 Economic and Structural Sources of Poverty gt Job Deskilling a reduction in the pro ciency needed to perform a speci c job that leads a corresponding reduction in the wages for that job 0 Solving the Poverty Problem 2 Sociological Explanations of Social Inequality in the US Functionalist Perspectives gt Meritocracy a hierarchy in which all positions are rewarded based on people s ability and credentials Con ict Perspectives Symbolic lnteractionist Perspectives US Strati cation in the Future Chapter 9 Race and Ethnicity gt Race a category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color hair texture eye shape etc gt Ethnic group a collection of people distinguished by others or by themselves on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics The Social Signi cance of Race and Ethnicity Racial Classi cations and the Meaning of Race Dominant and Subordinate Groups gt Dominant Group a racial or ethnic group that has the greatest power and resources in a society gt Subordinate Group a group whose members because of physical or cultural characteristics are at disadvantage and are not treated equaHy o Discrimination by the dominant group Prejudice a negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of speci c racial ethnic or other groups Stereotypes generalized thoughts about the appearance behavior or other characteristics of members of particular categories assumptions made by people about other people Racism a set of attitudes beliefs and practices that is used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group Theories of Prejudice gt Scapegoat a person or group that is incapable of offering resistance to the hostility or aggression of others gt Authoritarian Personality a personality type characterized by excessive conformity submissiveness to authority intolerance insecurity a high level of superstition and rigid stereotypic thinking Discrimination actions or practices of dominant group members that have a harmful effect on members of a subordinate group Genocide the deliberate systematic killing of an entire people or nation world war II Nazis Individual Discrimination oneonone acts by members of the dominant group that harm members of the subordinate group or their property Institutional Discrimination the daytoday practices of organization and institutions that have a harmful effect on members of subordinate groups gt Feagin39s identi ed 4 types of discrimination Isolate discrimination harmful action intentionally taken by a dominant group member of a subordinate group Ex a prejudice judge may give harsher sentences to African Americans without support by the judicial system Small Group Discrimination harmful action intentionally taken by a limited number of dominant group members against members of subordinate groups Ex a small group of white students may destroy a professor s office without the support of other studentsstaff Direct Institutionalized Discrimination organizationally prescribed or communityprescribed action that intentionally has a differential and negative impact on members of subordinate groups Ex Intentional exclusion of people of color from public things Indirect Institutionalized Discrimination practices that have a harmful effect on subordinate group members even though they had no intent of harming anyone 00 Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnic Relations gt Symbolic lnteractionist Perspectives gt Functionalist Perspectives Assimilation a process by which members of a subordinate racial and ethnic groups become absorbed into the dominant culture o Cultural acculturation occurs when members of an ethnic group adopt dominantgroup traits such as language dress values religion and food preferences 9 Structural integration occurs when members of subordinate racial or ethnic groups gain acceptance in everyday interaction with members of the dominant group schools and workplaces o Biological amalgamation occurs when members of one group marry those of other ethnic groups o Psychological involves a change in racial or ethnic self identification on the part of an individual Ethnic Pluralism the coexistence of a variety of distinct racial and ethnic groups within one society Switzerland o o o o o 00 99 go 9 09 O 69 O 09 o Segregation the spatial and social separation of categories of people by race ethnicity class gender andor religion Con ict Perspective The Caste Perspective Class Perspectives Internal Colonialism a practice that occurs when members of a racial or ethnic group are conquered or colonized and forcibly placed under the economic and political control of the dominant group The Split Labor Market Theory the division of the economy into two areas of employment Primary Sector upper tier composed of higher paid workers in more secure jobs usually dominant group Secondary Sector lower tier composed of lower paid workers in jobs with little security and hazardous working conditions subordinate group Perspectives on Race and Gender gt Gendered Racism the interactive effect of racism and sexism on the exploitation of women of color gt Theory of Racial Formation the idea that actions of the government substantially define racial and ethnic relations in the United States Critical Race Theory Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United States Native Americans and Alaska Natives Genocide Forced Migration and Forced Assimilation Native Americans and Alaska Natives Today Native Americans and Sports White AngloSaxon Protestants British Americans Class Gender and WASP39s WASP39s and Sports African Americans Segregation and Lynching Discrimination African Americans Today African Americans and Sports o 9 O 09 O 06 O 00 White Ethnic Americans Discrimination Against White Ethnics White Ethnics and Sports Asian Americans Chinese Americans Japanese Americans Korean Americans Filipino Americans lndochinese Americans Asian Americans and Sports Latinos Hispanic Americans Mexican Americans PuertoRicans Cuban Americans Latinos and Sports Middle Eastern Americans Middle Eastern Americans and Sports Global Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the Future Worldwide Racial and Ethnic Struggles Growing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the United States
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