PSY 320 - Final Lecture + Exam Notes
PSY 320 - Final Lecture + Exam Notes PSY 320
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elliana on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Marc Gellman in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Drugs & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/19/16
PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Final Lecture & Exam Notes Drug Policy • Legal status of drugs has li▯le to do with: ◦ Whether a substance is used or abused ◦ How many individuals die or OD on a substance ◦ Impacts on behavior • War on Drugs declared in 1970 ◦ Prison for individuals buying/selling/possessing etc. ◦ Has pre▯y much failed ◦ 41 million ppl arrested ◦ Largest # of ppl in prison than in anywhere else in the world ◦ Cos▯ng the US $15 billion annually ◦ Drug use increased 2800% ◦ 1.3% of Americans addicted to drugs in 1914 (Harrison Act passed) ◦ 1.3% of Americans addicted now - no eﬀect resul▯ng from the law ◦ Law enforcement, police, DEA agents, judges frequently demand an end to the drug war • Supply & Demand ◦ Supply side - reduce availability of drugs ◦ Interdic▯on eﬀorts • Eradica▯on, border controls, legal approaches (passing laws) ◦ Demand side - reduce use of drugs ◦ Less done to reduce use thru: • Harm reduc▯on • Educa▯on eﬀorts • What should policy goals be? ; esu gu rd ecud ◦e R • Educate/enable America's youth to reject legal & illegal drugs ▪ Alcohol & tobacco currently illegal based on age ▪ Yet young ppl s▯ll obtain & use • Stopping use before it starts ▪ Educa▯on & community ac▯on ◦ Reduce harm: • Reduce health & social costs to the public of illicit use • Heal users: ▪ Ge▯ng treatment resources where they are needed most • Preventa▯ve measures for high-abuse poten▯al medica▯ons like Oxycodone • Maybe don't start pa▯ents on them to begin with : emi r c ecud ◦e R • Increase safety of ci▯zens by substan▯ally reducing drug-related crime & violence • Changing policies • Addi▯onal goals: ◦ Eradica▯on & interdic▯on: • Disrupt the market: PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ▪ A▯ack the economic basis of the drug trade ▪ In areas like Colorado where there is a legal trade, the illicit trade has been heavily reduced • Border control: ▪ Stop the ﬂow ▪ Shield air, land, sea fron▯ers from drug threat • Eradica▯on: ▪ Break foreign & domes▯c drug sources of supply ▪ Policy & trade changes? ▪ Examine & solve our demand for drugs issue • Is drug use down? ◦ Drug use not decreased • Some progress w/ reduced alcohol & tobacco use in high schoolers • Marijuana use slight increase • Prescrip▯on drugs stabilized • 109 million ci▯zens current users of alcohol - 25.1 million commi▯ed DUI (11% of popula▯on) ▪ 10.1 million underage drinkers ◦ Crime not decreased ◦ Availability not decreased Current Issues • Legaliza▯on: ◦ Elimina▯ng drug oﬀenses from criminal status ◦ Determine age, amounts, loca▯ons, etc. ◦ Would lead to complete gvt withdrawal from drug-related issues • Decriminaliza▯on: ◦ Doesn't take the gvt en▯rely out of drug preven▯on eﬀorts ◦ Primarily aimed at reducing drug abuse among minors ◦ Se▯ng maximum allowable amounts for possession ◦ Restric▯ng use by minors ◦ Taxing produc▯on/sales/use ◦ Limi▯ng promo▯on/sales • Ending the drug war: ◦ Could roughly save $41 billion a year on prohibi▯on enforcement ◦ ~ $9 billion savings would result from legalizing marijuana ◦ $32.6 billion from legaliza▯on of other drugs ◦ Legaliza▯on would yield tax revenue of $46.7 billion annually • Assuming legal drugs were taxed at rates the same as for alcohol/tobacco Arguments For & Against: • Li▯le evidence that drug use will increase as a result of legaliza▯on ◦ May be very slight increase Sanjay Gupta on marijuana • Marijuana laws are not based on science • Marijuana does not have high poten▯al for abuse ◦ Leads to dependence in 9-10% of adult users PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Cocaine (Schedule 2 drug) hooks 20% of users • Marijuana doesn't lead ppl to use other drugs • MJ is safer than many prescrip▯on drugs se t un im 91 y r eve DO gurd no▯p i r c se rp m o r f se i d enoem ◦o S ◦ Nobody's ever died from MJ OD • Only 6% of MJ research published last year has analyzed its beneﬁts • Other 93% are designed primarily to inves▯gate harm ◦ Imbalance paints highly distorted picture Final Thoughts/Temperance • Prac▯ce of modera▯on • All drugs can be dangerous • Most drugs can be used safely & w/o harm if done w/ modera▯on & not excess • Realis▯c educa▯on about drugs • Reduce discourse about "winning wars" Exam 4 • 40 mul▯ple choice ques▯ons ◦ 10 on hallucinogens • 1/2 from slides, 1/2 from book • 4 vocab • Bath salts ◦ What they are ◦ How they're assembled/marketed • Dissocia▯ve Anesthe▯c Hallucinogens ◦ Phencyclidine (PCP) & Ketamine ◦ NMDA receptor antagonists ◦ "Out of body" experience ◦ Phencyclidine released in the 60s as an anesthe▯c, now used on animals in veterinary clinics • Unpredictable reac▯ons in human pa▯ents • Oﬀ the market as a human anesthe▯c ◦ Ketamine • "Special K" ▪ Mild, ﬂoaty, dreamy feelings, numbness, hallucinogenic eﬀects • S▯ll used in medicine • Injected before surgery • Stolen vials sold on the black market • Deliriants ◦ Produce states of mental confusion, loss of contact w/ reality ◦ 13 on Marijuana • 8 directly from slides • 1 vocab no▯neve◦r P • 7 ques▯ons • 1 from slides, the rest from book PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior • Stages of Change model • 1 Vocab ◦ Treatment • 7 ques▯ons all from the book • 4 Vocab ◦ Final lecture • 3 ques▯ons from notes
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