PSYCH/GWSS 357 Week 2 Notes - Endocrinology
PSYCH/GWSS 357 Week 2 Notes - Endocrinology GWSS 357 A
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GWSS/PSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicolas Germann on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GWSS 357 A at University of Washington taught by Nancy Kenney in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Psychobiology of Women in Women and Gender studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 04/19/16
Women’s Psych Lecture week 2 Anatomy -One of 3 ligaments holding each ovary in place – ligaments is estrogen sensitive. Female Gonads - Ovaries ovary ovary One ofOvarygaments holding each ovary are estrogenigaments sensitive ▯ Ovaries ▯ Maximum number in fetal ovary at 20 weeks post conception-app. 7 million At birth 400,000-1million remain Puberty 50,000 Remain Typically, 400 mature ova are released at ovulation between Puberty and menopause Ovary and Hormones -Ovary contains two Sequentially present endocrine glands. 1. During the Pre-ovulatory phase of the cycle, this is the ovarian follicle or more specifically for most of this phase, the Graafian follicle. 2. During the post-ovulatory phase of the cycle, this is the corpus luteum Divisions of the Monthly Cycle Divisions of the Monthly Cycle First Half of Cycle Day 1 to Ovulation Menses Ovulation Day 1 Sepahalves of cycle secoDay 1 First Day of Menses First Day of Menses ▯ Divisions of the Monthly Cycle ovulation Day 1 – First Day of Menses ▯ Starts with menses (blood or period) and ends with Menses. First half of Cycle Day 1 to ovulation Day 1 is an official name, Day 1 one of the monthly cycle is the start according to all conventions and it is the very first day of Menses. All synonyms for the same thing: -Pre-ovulatory Phase (Time) -Follicular Phase (Ovary) Pre-ovulatory Phase: Length: variable (Can vary from cycle to cycle for 1 women or differ from women to women) 22-35 daysish Second Half of Cycle; Ovulation to Day one Postovulatory Phase (item) Luteal Phase (Ovary) Secretory Phase (Uterus) Postovulatory Phase Fixed Length: 14 +or – 2 days (Length relatively constant from month-to month and from woman to woman) Ovarian Cycle-Pre-Ovulatory Phase Ovarian Cycle Preovulatory Phase Blood Vessels Maturing Ovarian Follicles Maturing Connective Tissue Ovum in Maturing Graafian Follicle Mature Graafian Follicle Follicular Fluid ▯ ▯ - **This is when the ovum and sticky cumulus breaks off and begins its journey to the oviduct…once in the oviduct the sticky cumulus is still with the ovum - At start of cycle, about 20 immature ova and their respective follicles begin the maturation process -Each follicle about .25 mm in diameter in length Ovarian/Graafian Follicle -Over the first few days of the monthly cycle, all but one follicle/ovum complex die off -The remaining follicle, which contains the ovum that will be released at the ovulation, is called the Graafian Follicl(the hormone producing site within the ovary) Changes in Graafian Follicle during the Pre-Ovulatory Phase 1. Proliferation (grow larger) of follicular cells-cells increase in size and number a. Follicle increases to 18-20 mm in diameter 2. Increase in Follicular fluid 3. Maturation of the Ovum Ovarian Hormond-Preovulatory Phase Follicular Fluid The Ovum Corna Radiata: Provded nutirents for Ovum from ovulation until the ovum is inside the oviduct. ( The snack) Sticky Cumulus:Asticky layer of cells that surrounds the ovum/Corona Radiata that holds it at the ovary until it is picked up by the oviduct and helps with the transport of the ovum into and through the oviduct. Estrogens -Estradiol-most common, active estrogen. a. often referred to colloquially as estrogen -Estrial-produced mainly during pregnancy -Estrone-produced mainly after menopause -Hormone-producing site: Ovarian Follicle/Graafian Follicle HORMONS PRODUCED: Ovarian Hormones - Preovulatory Phase □ Hormone-Producing Site - Ovarian Follicle/Graafian Follicle Hormones Produced: Estrogen (Estradiol) Androgens Inhibin ▯ Ovulation Ovarian Cycle Ovulation Ruptured Graafian Follicle Ovulated Ovum Corona Blood Clot Radiata ▯ ▯ ***When the follicle is at the largest level of maturity it has stretched the wall of the ovary to the extent that it is bulging out. (Think zit or volcano) That top or point of it is called the stigma. -Stigma will rupture ▯ -The ovum is released once the follicle wall breaks…the follicular fluid escapes/is released into the pelvic cavity -Once the fluid is gone the rest of the process of ovulation is slows the structure with the ovum and many other things will go out Substances to be released at ovulation 1. Follicular fluid 2. The ovum 3. Corona (Crown) Radiata-provided nutrients for ovum from ovulation until the ovum is inside the oviduct. (The ovum’s lunch box as it leaves the ovary and to the oviduct) 4. Sticky Cumulus- a sticky layer of cells that surrounds the ovum/corona radiate that holds it at the ovary until it is picked up by the oviduct and helps with the transport of the ovum into and through the oviduct. When ovarian wall is ruptured and blood occurs the pain is from the other organs recognizing that blood. Very short lived pain (prick). Mittelschmerz -Middle pain -Pain at ovulation due to irritation of organs and structures in the pelvic cavity by blood released with the rupture of the ovarian wall at ovulation -Happens to some degree in about 20% of ovulating women but severe or long- lasting pain occurs in much smaller proportion of population. Ovarian Cycle-Postovulatory Phase Ovarian Cycle Postovulatory Phase Albicans Later Corpus Luteum LuteumCorpus ▯ After ovulation takes place…follicle is blown up…still some cells left at the ovary that are still part of the follicle. ( Factory that has been bombed) Those cells that have been left over will be acted on from another hormone and rebuilt in the same location of where ovulation took place into a corpus ludium and it will get bigger and then shrink and die. (rebuilt then up then down) (Corpora=plural or corpus) HORMONES-POSTOVULATORY PHASE Ovarian Hormones - Postovulatory Phase □ Hormone Producing Site: Corpus Luteum Hormones Produced: Progesterone Estradiol Androgens Inhibin ▯ -Progestrone-major hormone in the corpus Ludium…. Singular hormone…main character here Estrogen levels are equal in this phase as they were pre-ovulatory When the corpus luim dies it changes to the corpusAlbicans..This changes to white and will be there forever (Think scar) What happenes if ovum is fertilized? Ovum will immieiatly snd hormonal signical that tell the corpus lundium to not die typically will be alove throughout the pregnancy Cporus ludiu is critical for the first 30-60days If it dies in the first few months the precnancy will come to an end after that time the placenta will take over the job Ovarian Cycle Postovulatory Phase Corpus Albicans Later Corpus Luteum Early Corpus Luteum ▯ Oviduct (Fallopian Tube) Isthmus Ampulla Oviduct Fimbria ▯ -Oviduct falupian tube: from the uturus to the Fimbria (Near the overary) Oviduct is split into 3: Isthmus,Ampulla, and Fimbria ▯ Fimbria □ Cilia (hair-like cells) lining the surface of the fimbria remove the sticky cumulus/ovum unit from the wall of the ovary and move it into the lumen (opening) of the oviduct. □ Once ovum is in the oviduct, nutrition comes from cells lining the oviduct. ▯ -Fimbria: The ovary is surrounded by the fimbria they are not attached The ovary is held in place but three ligaments that are estrogen sensitive As the ovary moves the surface of the fimbria moves around Where ever ovulation has occurred on that ovary the fimbria will have contact with follicle to help it move it…. -Working with a surface that si spriralled and ruffled…each layer of ruffle has cilia or hair like cells.All moving in one dirceaction so no matter where the sticky cumulus has contact with the cilia it will be moved around and around to the center to where the opening of the oviduct ▯ ****Fimbria***** Only reseason the Fimbria is able to grab the ovum is due to the sticky cumulus. The time between ovulatin and all the way aroun the fimbria into the lumen is less than a minute. Still being fed by the cornoa Ratia Oviduct (Fallopian Tube) Isthmus Ampulla Oviduct Fimbria ▯ !/2 the entire length of the oviduct=Ampulla Oviduct is made u of smooth muscle. Black= opening white=Muscle Lumin or opening has lots of little pices.Ampulla has a thinner muscle wall and a bigger lumen Ismas= smaller lumen and beigger muscle wall Ampulla □ Makes up about ½ the total length of the oviduct □ Thin muscle wall; wider lumen □ Movement by cilia (minor player) □ Movement by segmental peristaltic contractions (major mechanism) □ Move from fimbria to ampulla-isthmus junction in minutes ▯ Segmental Peristaltic motion: sections each section will contract to push the ovum through Ampulla-Isthmus junction □ Ovum held here for 2-2.5 days □ Most common site of fertilization of the ovum □ Typical ovum viable for fertilization for up to 24 hours ▯ Ovum will get stopped by theAmpulla clamped down and the Isthmus will clamped down keeping the ovum stuck. If fertilization doesn’t take place her then the ovum will be dead when leaving this stage if fertilized if will become an embryo -Process will become much slower after this stage Isthmus □ Thicker muscle wall and narrower lumen than ampulla □ Movement again mainly by segmental peristaltic contractions □ Slower movement – takes 0.5-1.5 days to get to uterus once released from ampulla-isthmus junction ▯ Ovum through oviduct (timing summary) □ Ovarian wall through fimbria and ampulla of oviduct to ampulla-isthmus junction - minutes □ Stay at ampulla-isthmus junction - 2-2.5 days □ Creep through isthmus to uterus - 0.5-1.5 days □ Arrives at uterus 3-4 days after ovulation □ If fertilized, will start to implant in the uterine wall 2-3 days after arriving in the uterus (5-7 days after ovulation) ▯ ***Timing is critical***** ***Only can be fertilized for 24hrs*** **Sperm can live in the body for up to 3 days*** Ectopic Pregnancy □ Any pregnancy in which implantation and growth of the embryo occurs anywhere except the upper 2/3 of the uterus □ Most common – tubal pregnancy – development in oviduct ▯ - Why is it most common in the oviduct? Because the lumen of the ismus is to small fo rhte ovum to make it through. Some kind of blockage in the lumen of the ismus. Ova are larger than sperm. - If development begins in the tube…oviducts are not built ot expand in size like the Uterus. - Tubal pregnancy is life threatening - If tubal pregnancy is not treated right about tube will rupture and hemorrhaging will result and most likely will kill the women Ovulation Ovulation will only occur in one ovary each month…not equal Vast majority of women most of the time on the right side ▯ The wide section of the triangle is cllled the fundas…wide upper part of the Uterus. The lower 1/3 part of the Uterus is the cervix (Narrow partion of the uterus) If implation occurs in cervix also an attopic pregnancy. Not enough space. Struct of 2 parts the Fundus and the Cervix . Uterus is full thick muscle walls. Uterus Is held in place with multiple ligaments ▯ ▯ The Cetix is the whole Narrow lower section of the uterus The cervix ends to an opening to the vagina and allows where the mistral fluid to flow and semen to enter. This opening is called the cervical OS or cervical opening -The cervix produces a substance called cervical muscues that is going to change throughout the cycle and hormone sensitive Cervical Mucus □ Hormone sensitive □ Around ovulation (high estrogen, low progesterone), cervical mucus like raw egg whites – wet and slippery □ Post ovulatory (high estrogen and high progesterone) – cervical mucus is thick and pasty □ Protect uterus from bacterial infection ▯ Estrogen is main in the pre-ovulatory cycle. Sperm like the pre-ovultory muscus. Come out in strands with spaces in between it if you look at it under a microscope. Think highway or slip in slide for sperm - After ovulation certivcal mucus is thick and pasty a. Sperm do not like this its thick and gupy its sometimes called hostile cervical mucus. Hard for sperm to travel through it. b. Trying to protect the pregnancy and make sure bacteria does into come in protecting a potentially fertilized ovum ▯ - The paet of utruras that has to do with menstruation ▯ Taken at the point of the monthly cycle when the lining of the uterus is most full developed Perimetrium and myometrium do not chage size no matter what the Endometrium changes and is closesest Divisions of the Monthly Cycle First Half of Cycle Preovulatory Phase (time) Follicular Phase (ovary) ∅ Proliferative Phase (uterus) Menses Ovulation Separates first and second Day 1 halves of cycle Day 1 First Day of Menses ▯ - -