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BSC 215 Notes for the week of 4/18

by: Regan Dougherty

BSC 215 Notes for the week of 4/18 BSC 215

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 215 > BSC 215 Notes for the week of 4 18
Regan Dougherty
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notes for the week of 4/18
Human Anatomy & Physiology 1
Jason Pienaar
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Pienaar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 04/19/16
Tuesday, April 19, 2016 BSC 215 CNS II con’t - Cerebellum • responsible for coordination of movement • works with cerebrum, basal nuclei, brain stem, and spinal cord • 2 hemispheres which are connected by the vermis • Grey Matter - cerebellar cortex and deep nuclei • White Matter - arbor vitae and cerebellar peduncles (connects cerebellum to the rest of the brain) - The Brain Stem • Mid Brain (top) - movement, sensation, startle reflex • Pons (middle) - breathing, sleep, arousal - associated with comas (pons determines when you wake up) • Medulla Oblongata (bottom) - decussation (crossing over) of motor corticospinal tracts • Most nerves one the right side of the brain affect the left side of the body and vice versa. - Brain Protection • Skull bones • Cranial meninges - 3 protective membranes of dense irregular connective tissue - Pia mater (innermost membrane) 1 Tuesday, April 19, 2016 - Arachnoid mater • Subarachnoid space is below arachnoid mater - Dura mater (outermost membrane) - two layers: periosteal dura, meningeal dura • Subdural space is below dura mater • Dural space is between the two layers • Epidural space - absence of periosteal dura in the spinal chord provides space for epidural anesthetics • Cerebrospinal fluid - fluid with the same density of the brain that fills ventricles and surrounds the brain; continuously circulates within and around the brain and spinal cord - additional functions: brain buoyancy, temperature regulation, waste removal - CSF is formed in the choroid plexuses of ventricles where blood vessels contact ependymal cells (extract and convert blood plasma to CSF). - CSF is circulated through ventricles, subarachnoid space, and the central canal (circulation occurs by the beating of cilia on ependymal cells). - CSF is reabsorbed into the bloodstream via dural sinuses. • Blood brain barrier - collection of structures that separate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain extracellular fluid (ECF) from blood - “selective filter” - tight junctions formed between capillary simple squamous epithelium • tight junctions are formed by astrocytes 2 Tuesday, April 19, 2016 BSC 215 CNS III - Spinal Cord Functions • - Relay station: provides a way for the brain to communicate with the body below the neck - Processing station: some integrative functions without input from the brain (spinal reflexes) • External Spinal Cord Anatomy - Extends from foramen magnum (in the skull) to between the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae. • Nerves exit the spinal cord below the vertebrae. - 2 enlargements (cervical and lumbar) • enlargements - nerve roots serving upper and lower limbs attached to the associated area - End of cord forms conus medularis. - Spinal pia gathers beyond the conus medularis to form the filum terminal which anchors to the first coccygeal vertebra. 1 Thursday, April 21, 2016 CNS III con’t - Spinal Cord Anatomy • White matter (tracts) is on the outside • Grey matter is on the inside • Anterior median fissure • Posterior median sulcus • 3 Meninges - pia mater - vertebral cavity - where is this? - arachnoid mater - dura mater • Nerve roots • Posterior horn (composed of grey matter) • Anterior horn (composed of grey matter) - Lateral horn (on anterior side) • Central canal (houses cerebrospinal fluid) • Grey commissure • Posterior root (sensory functions) - Posterior root ganglion (group of cell bodies) • Anterior root (motor functions) - Spinal Meninges and Spaces • Epidural space (veins and adipose tissue) - above dura mater • Dura mater (dense irregular collagenous connective tissue) • Subdural space (sometimes it exists, sometimes it doesn’t - just like in the brain) 1 Thursday, April 21, 2016 • Arachnoid mater • Subarachnoid space • Pia mater - Denticulate ligament - anchors spine to vertebral column • not found in the brain - There is no space below the pia mater because it is wrapped tightly around the spinal cord. - Spinal White Matter • contains axons of neurons that travel to and from the brain • Funiculus - region of white matter - posterior funiculus (sensory) - lateral funiculus (sensory and motor) - anterior funiculus (motor) • Columns - collections of tracts within funiculi - Ascending Tracts (posterior spinal cord, sensory) • posterior columns - faciculus gracilis - sends somatosensory signals to brain (fine touch, vibration, and proprioception from the lower limbs) - center • posterior columns - faciculus cuneatus - sends somatosensory signals to brain (fine touch, vibration, and proprioception from the trunk, neck, and upper limbs) - outside • spinocerebellar - proprioceptive signals to cerebellum • anterolateral system - spinothalmic tracts 2 Thursday, April 21, 2016 - sends information about pain, temperature, and certain types of touch to the brain - Descending Tracts (anterior spinal cord, motor) • Corticospinal tracts - motor information from motor areas of the cerebral cortex • Reticulospinal tracts - motor information from the brain stem - maintenance of posture and limb orientation during movement • Tectospinal tracts - reflexive movements of head and eyes Vestibulospinal tracts • - posture and balance 3 Thursday, April 21, 2016 CNS, PNS, and Movement - Motor Neurons • Upper motor neurons - cell bodies in motor areas of cortex (some in brain stem) - belong to CNS (travel only in spinal cord/brain) - Corticonuclear tracts - axons that innervate head and neck muscles (this is the exception - part of PNS?) - Corticospinal tracts - axons descend into spinal cord, synapse in anterior horn - Decussation occurs at the medullary pyramids - Interneurons • Lower motor neurons - cell bodies in anterior horn of spinal grey matter - belong to PNS (exit spinal cord) - Spinal nerves - axons innervate skeletal muscle • Fibers that decussate (90%) travel in the lateral funiculi. • Fibers that do not decussate (10%) travel in the anterior funiculi. - The CNS and Voluntary Movement • Cerebral cortex motor areas - pre- and primary motor cortices • Basal nuclei Cerebellum • • Spinal cord - Voluntary Movement Overview 1. CNS: movement plan selected in premotor cortex 1 Thursday, April 21, 2016 2. CNS: Basal Nuclei allow thalamus to stimulate primary motor cortex. 3. CNS: Upper motor neurons in the primary motor cortex send signal to lower motor neurons. 4. PNS: Lower motor neurons stimulate a skeletal muscle to contract. 5. PNS: Sensory apparatus in muscles send signal to cerebellum 6. CNS: Cerebellum instructs upper motor neurons to modify program as required - Motor Cortices • contain majority of upper motor neurons involved in planning complex movement • Specific parts of the motor cortices control movement in specific parts of the body. - Basal Nuclei • initiate appropriate movements by stimulating motor neurons of the thalamus • inhibit inappropriate movements by blocking motor neurons of the thalamus • Parkinson’s Disease - movement is difficult to initiate and difficult to stop when started - Cerebellum • monitors and adjusts ongoing motion • Short term: compares intended movement to actual movement and adjusts motor error • Long term: motor learning • receives information from motor cortex and ascending tracts 2


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