New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

NHM 253 Meat Science

by: Regan Dougherty

NHM 253 Meat Science NHM 253

Regan Dougherty
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes taken in class on 4/19
Food Science
Dr. Crowe
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Food Science

Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 253 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Crowe in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Food Science in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


Reviews for NHM 253 Meat Science


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/19/16
Tuesday, April 19, 2016 NHM 253 Meat Science - Lipid content, connective tissue, and muscle impact the tenderness of meat. • Lipid content is the primary determinant of tenderness - Types of Meat • Beef cuts originate from cattle which are classified according to age and gender. • Veal cuts originate from young calves of beef cattle slaughtered between 3 weeks and 3 months. - light in color because the calves are not allowed to move to prevent development of connective tissue. • Lamb (young) and mutton (older) are the meat of sheep. • Pork cuts come from young swine slaughtered between 5-7 months of age. - Composition of Meat • water, muscle, connective tissue, adipose tissue • Marbling - term used to describe fat embedded within the muscles - major determinant of quality - Fat melts when exposed to heat, aiding in tenderization and flavoring (this is why marbling is desired). - What affects fat content? The older the animal, the more fat present. • • A high-fat diet will increase marbling. - Grass-fed beef has less fat than traditional beef. • Certain species have different fat compositions. - Muscle Composition • Actin - thin filament protein • Myosin - thick filament protein 1 Tuesday, April 19, 2016 • Actinomyosin - contracting muscle results in cross-linking of actin and myosin. - responsible for muscle movement - The larger the fibers, the less tender the cut of meat. • Older animals tend to have larger fibers. - Composition of Connective Tissue • composed of protein matrix that holds muscle cells together Elastic connective tissue negatively affects tenderness. • - does not break down when exposed to heat - found mainly in ligaments and tendons • Collagen - tough, fibrous protein matrix that converts to gelatin upon exposure to heat - melts when exposed to heat - Color Chemistry of Red Meat • Myoglobin - pigment-containing protein that is responsible for muscle color - quaternary protein • Hydrophobic core - purple-red in color - Composition of Meat Pigments • Myoglobin (purple-red) - not seen in meat that we eat • Oxymyoglobin (bright red) - results from exposure of myoglobin to oxygen - this is the desired color of retail meats Metmyoglobin (brown-red) - color results from prolonged exposure to oxygen OR • bacteria - Determinants of Tenderness • Cut of meat - the location/how active the muscle is will determine tenderness (the less active, the more tender) 2 Tuesday, April 19, 2016 • Animal’s age - increased age causes increased muscle fiber size and increased lipid content • Heredity and breed characteristics • Diet • Marbling • Type of aging or electrical stimulation of meat - voltage runs through muscle to assist in the breakdown of glycogen • Influence of preparation - mallet, marinade, vinegar, enzymes, acid - Salt does not break down proteins, but it keeps the water in the meat, keeping it from drying out and contributing to tenderness. - Aging Meats • Rigor mortis - postmortem physical and biochemical event resulting in cross-linking of actin and myosin, causing muscle tissues to contract and stiffen - oxygen = muscle is relaxed - no oxygen (heart stops beating) = glycogen breaks down to produce lactic acid (which increases tenderness) - Rigor mortis occurs 6-24 hours after death; it is maintained for about 24-36 hours. • By allowing meats to age, natural enzymes are released. The meat naturally contains proteases (enzymes that break down protein). - improves tenderness, moisture content, flavor, color, and ability to brown during cooking - Larger and older animals need to be aged. - Artificial Tenderization • Enzymes - relax and break down muscle proteins - bromelainin (found in pineapple), ficin (fig), papain (papya) • Salts - aids in moisture retention; causes the eater to produce more saliva, aiding the breakdown of the meat 3 Tuesday, April 19, 2016 • Acids - assist in breaking down proteins, allowing flavors to penetrate - vinegar, pineapple • Mechanical tenderization • Electrical stimulation - Inspection • Inspection is mandatory. Look for signs of disease. • • Ante-mortem • Post-mortem • Performed by the USDA - Grading • Grading is voluntary. • Performed by the USDA. • Prime, Choice, and Select - Kobe Beef has a higher amount of polyunsaturated fat. - Storage and Preparation • Meat is a potentially hazardous food because of protein and water content. • Red meat should be consumed within 3 to 4 days. • Ground meat should be consumed within 1 to 2 days because of higher exposure to oxygen. - Determining Doneness • Best indicator - thermometer Accurate determinatino fo doneness for roasts or large cuts of meat requires the • use of a thermometer inserted in the thickest portion away from the bone. 4


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.