Unit 2 Class Notes - Week 1
Unit 2 Class Notes - Week 1 ANTH260
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessica Shook on Monday February 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH260 at Washington State University taught by Luke Premo in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 150 views. For similar materials see Physical Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/16/15
Outline Why study nonhuman primates General primate traits what is a primate 3 evolutionary explanations for quotprimateness Survey of 4 groups of primates Prosimians New world monkeys Old world monkeys Hominoids Why study nonh uman primates o Primates share many homologous traits in morphology physiology development and behavior Similarities due to descent help us understand the deeper evolutionary roots of human morphology and human nature 0 Studying diversity in living primates helps us to understand how selection shapes morphology and behavior in different environmental conditions General Primate Traits What is a primate 1 Erectupright posture 2 Five digits on hands and feet i exible digits ii nails instead of claws iii opposable thumbbig toe iv tactile pads on nger tips 3 Retention of clavicle collarbone mobile front limbs 4 Generalized heterodont different forms dentition teeth equation 5 Reduced emphasis on sense of smell reduced snout most primates lack a rhinarium 6 Binocular color vision fullyenclosed eye orbits 7 Primate quotlife historyquot traits I small litters few offspring per pregnancy prolonged period of infancy amp dependency long lifespan for body size heavily dependent on learned behavior most live in relatively large social groups The evolution of primate adaptations 3 hypothesis 0 arboreal hypothesis basic primate traits were selected to t an adaptive niche in the trees 0 visual predator hypothesis early primates adapted to forest undergrowth where they exploited insects and small prey that required stealth and dexterity 0 fruit ower eating hypothesis basic primate traits were favored by selection to better harvest owering plants and fruit Survey of Nonhuman primates Geographic distribution of nonhuman primates 0 Usually reside in tropical areas 4 groups of primates Prosimians 0 Includes lemurs tarsiers lorises ayeayes indris Tarsiers eat insects mostly but also birds bats and snakes Prosimian locomotion vertical clinging and leaping o Con ned to Madagascar tropical Africa and Asia 0 Prosimians retain the greatest number of primitive ie ancestral traits of all primates New world monkeys anthropoid Old world monkeys anthropoid Hominoids apes and humans anthropoid