Chapter 2 Notes
Popular in Abnormal Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by priitad on Tuesday February 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 01:830:340 at a university taught by Dr. Karlin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views.
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Date Created: 02/17/15
An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology green something that is noted specifically from professor and not in the book from his bold key terms Key Terms Genes long molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA The DiathesisStress Model The Reciprocal GeneEnvironment Model Epigenitics Neuroscience Neurotransmitter Agonists increases the activity of a neurotransmitter by mimicking its effects Antagonists inhibits or blocks the production of the neurotransmitter or the function of the neurotransmitter to prevent the chemical from reaching the next neuron Inverse agonists produce effects opposite to the effects produced by the neurotransmitter itself OneDimensional vs MultiDimensional Models One dimensional accepting that a single cause can bring about psychopathology o Ignores information from other areas when focused on only one cause Multidimensional psychopathology or abnormal behavior 39 j 1 3 results from multiple in uences 0 Biological o Behavioral o Emotional 0 Social amp Cultural 0 Developmental Social Influences Behavioral Moos Judy39s lair39tmg 551925 15r nquot c 3173 33933 harm Causes o 39 f39ldE 21rd f1rquotl39 rush 39 he quot51 on o Dune r1 JF r3F we 39 quot gtr39 j T avg 13 ru39d r1 st1quot aspects of a person no Wm p and their circumstances to diagnose and treat abnormal behavior or psychopathology just one or two will not provide a full picture and will not allow for accurate diagnosistreatment Disorder Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology The Nature of Genes 0 Genes are long molecules of DNA that determine the genetic characteristics of a person every single person except identical twins have different genes of different combinations 0 In humans there are 23 pairs of chromosomes 22 pairs provide directions for the makeup of the body and brain and the 23rd chromosome determines the sex of the person 0 Dominant vs Recessive genes gt Dominant gene is one of a pair that influences that trait strongly we only need one chromosome of the pair to be dominant for that gene to be the one that presents itself ie brown eye gene is dominant to blue eye gene and if one brown eye gene is present then eyes will be brown need two blue eye genes for eyes to be blue gt Recessive gene must be paired with another recessive gene for that to be the trait that presents itself New Developments in the Study of Genes and Behavior 0 Development and behavior except in rare cases are determined either through polygenetics or epigenetics gt Polygenetic traits such as behavior and development that are influenced by many genes Because of the polygenetic characteristic many scientists use quantitative genetics and molecular genetics Using these methods scientists can map out hundreds of genes and how these vast number of genes can influence or not influence one or more traits gt Epigenetic change in sequence between the genes from environmental causes this causes a change in the expression of the gene and therefore the characteristic the gene influences 0 Generally the more severe the disorder the more genetic influence there is 0 But even in the most severe cases of schizophrenia less than 50 is said to be through genetic contribution The Interaction Between Genes and the Environment 0 Eric Kandel amp geneenvironment interactions gt Hypothesized that environment can occasionally turn on genes that were originally turned off gt Theory that brain and its functions are subject to change based on environment even at the genetic level Research now shows that this is true 0 The DiathesisStress Model gt This model suggests that individuals inherit a tendency toward a behavior or trait and this can be activated based on environmental and social factors gt The quottendencyquot is known as a diathesis for example someone can have a diathesis for depression but without the right environmental and social stressors this trait might never be expressed gt The smaller the diathesis or vulnerability the greater the stressor has to be in order to develop the disorder and vice versa with a large diathesis ex alcoholism someone with the diathesis toward alcoholism might develop it through habits in college and someone else with a diathesis toward alcoholism might not because they were never exposed to binge drinking culture both environment and genetic factors have a role 0 The Reciprocal GeneEnvironment Model gt This model suggests that a gene that codes for a disorder might also cause a person to behave in such a way that there will be a stressor that leads to the exposure of that disorder ex depression impulsivity someone with genetic chance of depression may have an increase in probability that that person will experience stressful events or seek stressful events unknowingly and that will trigger the onset of depression 0 Epigenetics gt Environmental influence may override the predetermined genetic expression gt Genes do not control everything environment plays a large factor Ex mice born to easily stressed mothers but raised by calm mothers tended to be calm gt Stress nutrition or other factors can affect the epigenome and be passed down through generations meaning a permanent change to the gene activity Neuroscience and its Contributions to Psychopathology The field of neuroscience 0 Study of how the nervous system works and what its role is in disease and behavior The Central Nervous System 0 Made up of brain and spinal cord processes information from sense organs 0 Nerve cells the neuron need to know this gt Soma cell body gt Dendrites branches of neuron extending from the soma that receive messages from other neurons numerous receptors located on dendrite in order to receive messages in form of chemical impulse gt Axon trunk of neuron that sends messages to other neurons chemical impulse from dendrite converted to electrical impulse is then transmitted to other neurons through axon gt Axon terminals buds at end of axon where chemical messages neurotransmitters are released gt Synapses small gaps between axon terminal and dendrite where neurotransmitters are released and picked up as signals 0 Neurons operate electrically and communicate chemically gt neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers from one neuron to another gt When there is enough neurotransmitter available in the synapse chemical part tiny receptors on the dendrite will open allowing a change of potassium and sodium ion concentration action potential and the neuron will fire sending an electrical impulse down the axon electrical part 0 Function of Neurotransmitters gt agonist antagonist and inverse agonist drugs affecting NTs are usually agonists increase function or production of neurotransmitter or antagonists inhibit or block production and function of neurotransmitter gt Many neurons especially those involved with emotions have 10000 or so simultaneous synapses with other cells Some of these connections are between the neuron and itself gt How Neurotransmitters Work fig 212 Noam WmWh matha dhmm mmumuummmummw nmnmmmm Thom Gumammo uwmmmm 39 MWMM Mummwrsmwmimm Wemwmmmmuuu mammmnm mm Muawtsmmnmmwmomm MMMMWUMMM minquotm 0 Structure of the Brain gt View of left half of brain with temporal lobe removed Cmgulate gyms Anterior 39 thalamic Form nuclei Septal nuclei Mamillary bodies Frontal lobe Hippocampus OlfactO39Y bU39b Parahippocampall gyms limblc lobe 02013009390 Luring gt Brain has 2 main parts Brain Stem C Lower more ancient part of brain found in most animals 0 This area controls all basic survival mechanisms such as sleeping breathing moving in a coordinated manner etc o Medulla pons cerebellum make up lowest part called hindbrain o Midbrain o Thalamus and hypothalamus behavior and emotion act as relay between forebrain and hindbrain Forebrain o Hippocampus cingulate gyrus septum amygdala limbic system base of forebrain gt regulates emotion and our basic drives of sex aggression hunger and thirst o Basal ganglia and Caudate nucleus gt believed to control motor activity 0 Cerebral cortex gt Largest part of forebrain contains 80 of all neurons in CNS gt gives us our human qualities planning reasoning and creating gt Left hemisphere verbal and other cognitive process gt Right hemisphere perceiving and creating images gt Four lobes on each hemisphere Frontal higher level cognitive function thinking reasoning planning longterm memory Temporal recognizing sight and sounds with longterm memory Parietal recognizing sensations of touch and keeping check on body positioning Occipital analyze and understand visual input Peripheral Nervous System 0 Somatic Nervous System Controls the muscles of the body and voluntary o Autonomic Nervous System involuntary and includes endocrine system and cardiovascular system gt Sympathetic Nervous System mobilizes the body during times of stress flight or fight response due to this system gt Parasympathetic Nervous System Balances the sympathetic nervous system by counteracting its effects ie lowers heart rate starts digestion Endocrine system o responsible for producing and secreting hormones through many different glands gt Adrenal glands adrenaline or epinephrine response to stress and saltregulating hormones gt Thyroid gland thyroxine facilitates energy metabolism and growth 0 HPA Axis HypothalamicPituitaryAdrenalcortical Axis gt It39s an integration of the endocrine system and nervous system function gt When adrenaline is really high the stress hormone cortisol is released from the adrenal glands as well gt The HPA axis has been implicated in many psychological disorders Neurotransmitters Effected by Current Psychiatric Drugs 0 Main NTs looked at in simple and incorrect models of brain function gt Serotonin 5HT believed to influence a lot of our behavior particularly the way information is processed Extremely low levels of 5HT are associated with less inhibition and less stability in mood and emotion regulation High levels of 5HT can interact with the GABA system and counteract glutamate Irregular levels of 5HT are highly associated with anxiety depression suicide and aggression but are not the only factor gt Gamma aminobutyric acid GABA Glutamate an excitatory NT that quotturns onquot neurons GABA an inhibitory NT that inhibits or regulates action potentials o Glutamate and GABA work independently but the balance between the two determines whether a neuron will fire or not GABA system seems to reduce levels of anger hostility aggression and even positive emotional states such as pleasure and eagerness gt Norepinephrine NE This system acts in a general way to regulate certain behavioral tendencies and is not directly correlated or involved in psychological disorders gt Dopamine DA lmplicated that DA plays major role in schizophrenia and now maybe even in depression DA and 5HT circuits cross paths and therefore influence many of the same behaviors o Dopamine activity associated with pleasureseeking and outgoing behaviors o 5HT activity associated with inhibition and constraint gt MThe two can be considered to balance each other out Two major dopamine pathways 0 Mesolimbic system is implicated in schizophrenia 0 Path to basal ganglia contributes to problems in locomotor system like tardive dyskinesia Implications for Psychopathology 0 Relationship between brain and abnormal behavior gt Psychological disorders usually are a mix of emotions behavioral symptoms and cognitive symptoms so a physically lesion to a certain part of the brain will not usually cause a psychological disorder gt Example Obsessive Compulsive Disorder A biological cause for OCD might be a lesion or injury to an area in the frontal cortex BUT not that simple Behavioral and Cognitive Psychology Emotions Cultural Social and Interpersonal Factors Lifespan Development Conclusions
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