Chapter 13 MGT 250
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Date Created: 04/19/16
Chapter 13 : Groups & Teams Increasing Cooperation, Reducing Conflict Vocabulary: Adjourning: members prepare for disbandment Cohesiveness: tendency of a group or team to stick together Conflict: a process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party Continuous Improvement Teams: small groups of volunteers or workers and supervisors who meet intermittently to discuss workplace – and qualityrelated problems Cooperating: efforts are systematically integrated to achieve a collective objective Crossfunctional Team: staged with specialists pursuing a common objective Devil’s Advocacy: the process of assigning someone to play the role of critic Dialect Method: the process of having two people or groups playing opposing roles in a debate in order to better understand a proposal Division of Labor: the work is divided into particular tasks that are assigned to particular workers Dysfunctional Conflict: a conflict that hinders the organization’s performance or threatens its interests Formal Group: a group assigned by organizations or its managers to accomplish specific goals Forming: the process of getting orientates and getting acquainted Functional Conflict: benefits the main purposes of the organization and serves its interest Group: two or more freely interacting individuals who share norms, share goals, and common identity Group Cohesiveness: a “we feeling” binding group members together Groupthink: a cohesive group’s blind unwillingness to consider alternatives Informal Group: a group formed by people whose overriding purpose is getting together for friendship or a common interest Maintenance Role: relationshiporiented role, consists of behavior that fosters constructive relationships among team members Norming: conflicts are resolved, close relationships develop, and unity and harmony emerge Norms: general guidelines or rules of behavior that most group or team members follow Performing: members concentrate on solving problems and completing the assigned task Personality Conflict: interpersonal opposition based on personal dislike or disagreement Programmed Conflict: designed to elicit different opinions without inciting people’s personal feelings Roles: socially determined expectations of how individuals should behave in a specific position Selfmanaged Teams: groups of workers who are given administrative oversight for their task domains Social Loafing: the tendency of people to exert less effort when working in groups than when working alone Storming: the emergence of individual personalities and roles and conflicts within the group Task Role: task oriented role, consists of behavior that concentrates on getting the team’s tasks done Chapter 13 : Groups & Teams Increasing Cooperation, Reducing Conflict Team: as a small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable Trust: reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behaviors 13.1 Groups versus Teams Groups & Teams: How Do They Differ? What a Group Is: A Collection of People Performing as Individuals What a Team Is: A Collection of People with Common Commitment Three traits employees like about their most admired bosses are they trust their employees, show honesty and authenticity, and possess great teambuilding skills Formal versus Informal Groups Groups can either be formal or informal o Formal groups – created to accomplish specific goals A division, department, work group, or a committee Temporary or permanent o Informal groups – created for friendship Collection of friends who hand out with one another Those you take coffee breaks with, bowling team, service club, “alumni group” or other voluntary organizations Can be highly productiveeven more so than formal groups Work Teams for Four Purposes: Advice, Production, Project & Action 1. Advice teams – created to broaden the information base for managerial decisions 2. Production teams – responsible for performing daytoday operations Chapter 13 : Groups & Teams Increasing Cooperation, Reducing Conflict 3. Project teams – work to do creative problem solving, often by applying the specialized knowledge of members of a crossfunctional team 4. Action teams – work to accomplish tasks that require people with specialized training and a high degree of coordination SelfManaged Teams: Workers with Own Administrative Oversight A group known as continuous improvement teams are about 1012 people and meet for 6090 mins once or twice a month From Continuous Improvement Teams to SelfManaged Teams “selfmanaged” does not mean simply turning workers loose for doing their own thing Selfmanaged teams are an outgrowth of a blend of behavioral science and management practice Goal is to increase productivity and employee quality of work life Are SelfManaged Teams Effective? Most common chores today are work scheduling and customer interaction while the least common is hiring and firing Have been found to have a positive effect on productivity and attitudes of self responsibility and control 13.2 Stages of Group & Team Development Stage 1: Forming – Why are we here? Stage 2: Storming – Why are we fighting over who’s in charge & who does what? Stage 3: Norming – Can we agree on roles & work as a team? Stage 4: Performing – Can we do the job properly? Stage 5: Adjourning – Can we help members transition out? 13.3 Building Effective Teams 1. Cooperation: We need to systematically integrate our efforts 2. Trust: We need to have reciprocal faith in each other 3. Cohesiveness: Togetherness is vital Chapter 13 : Groups & Teams Increasing Cooperation, Reducing Conflict 4. Performance Goals and Feedback 5. Motivation through Mutual Accountability 6. Size: Small teams or large teams? a. Small teams: 29 members for better interaction & morale i. Advantages: 1. Better interaction 2. Better morale ii. Disadvantages: 1. Fewer resources 2. Possibly less innovation 3. Unfair work distribution b. Large teams: 1016 members for more resources & division of labor i. Advantages: 1. More resources 2. Division of labor ii. Disadvantages: 1. Less interaction 2. Lower morale 3. Social loafing 7. Roles: How team members are expected to behave a. Task roles: Getting the work done b. Maintenance roles: Keeping the team together 8. Norms: Unwritten Rules for Team Members a. Why norms are enforced i. To help the group survive – “don’t do anything that will hurt us” ii. To clarify role expectations – “you have to go along to get along” iii. To help individuals avoid embarrassing situations – “don’t call attention to yourself” iv. To emphasize the group’s important values and identity – “we’re known for being special” 9. Groupthink: When Peer Pressure Discourages “Thinking Outside the Box” a. Cohesiveness? Or blind unwillingness? Chapter 13 : Groups & Teams Increasing Cooperation, Reducing Conflict b. Symptoms of Groupthink i. Invulnerability, inherent morality, and stereotyping of opposition ii. Rationalization of selfcensorship iii. Illusion of unanimity, peer pressure, and mindguards iv. Groupthink versus “the wisdom of crowds” c. The Results of Groupthink: DecisionMaking Defects i. Reduction in alternative ideas ii. Limiting of other information d. Preventing Group Think: Making criticism & other perspectives permissible i. Allow criticism ii. Allow other perspectives 13.4 Managing Conflict The Nature of Conflict: Disagreement is Normal Dysfunctional conflict – bad for organizations Functional conflict – good for organizations Can Too Little or Too Much Conflict Affect Performance Too little conflict – indolence o Organizational performance suffers Too much conflict – warfare o Workplace aggression and violence Three Kinds of Conflict: Personality, Intergroup & CrossCultural 1. Personality conflicts: clashes because of personal dislikes of disagreements a. Personality clashes – when individual differences can’t be resolved b. Competition for scarce resource – when two parties need the same things c. Time pressure – when people believe there aren’t enough hours to do the work d. Communication failures – when people misperceive and misunderstand 2. Intergroup conflicts: clashes between work groups, teams & departments a. Inconsistent goals or reward systems – when people pursue different objectives b. Ambiguous jurisdictions – when job boundaries are unclear c. Status differences – when there are inconsistencies in power and influence 3. Multicultural conflicts: clashes between cultures How to Stimulate Constructive Conflict 1. Spur competition among employees 2. Change the organization’s culture & procedures 3. Bring in outsiders for new perspectives 4. Use programmed conflict: Devil’s Advocacy & the Dialectic Method Chapter 13 : Groups & Teams Increasing Cooperation, Reducing Conflict a. Devil’s advocacy – roleplaying criticism to test whether a proposal is workable b. The dialectic method – roleplaying two sides of a proposal to test whether it is workable Five Basic Behaviors to Help You Better Handle Conflict 1. Openness 2. Equality 3. Empathy 4. Supportiveness 5. Positiveness
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