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Chapter 13

by: Stephanie De Angelis

Chapter 13 MGT 250

Stephanie De Angelis

GPA 3.1

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Chapter 13 Notes
Managerial and Organizational Concepts
Professor Bhandari
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie De Angelis on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 250 at Pace University - New York taught by Professor Bhandari in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Managerial and Organizational Concepts in Business, management at Pace University - New York.

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Date Created: 04/19/16
Chapter 13 : Groups & Teams Increasing Cooperation, Reducing Conflict Vocabulary: Adjourning: members prepare for disbandment Cohesiveness: tendency of a group or team to stick together Conflict: a process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party Continuous Improvement Teams: small groups of volunteers or workers and supervisors who  meet intermittently to discuss workplace – and quality­related problems Cooperating: efforts are systematically integrated to achieve a collective objective Cross­functional Team: staged with specialists pursuing a common objective Devil’s Advocacy: the process of assigning someone to play the role of critic Dialect Method: the process of having two people or groups playing opposing roles in a debate in order to better understand a proposal Division of Labor: the work is divided into particular tasks that are assigned to particular  workers Dysfunctional Conflict: a conflict that hinders the organization’s performance or threatens its  interests Formal Group: a group assigned by organizations or its managers to accomplish specific goals Forming: the process of getting orientates and getting acquainted Functional Conflict: benefits the main purposes of the organization and serves its interest Group: two or more freely interacting individuals who share norms, share goals, and common  identity Group Cohesiveness: a “we feeling” binding group members together Groupthink: a cohesive group’s blind unwillingness to consider alternatives Informal Group: a group formed by people whose overriding purpose is getting together for  friendship or a common interest Maintenance Role: relationship­oriented role, consists of behavior that fosters constructive  relationships among team members Norming: conflicts are resolved, close relationships develop, and unity and harmony emerge Norms: general guidelines or rules of behavior that most group or team members follow  Performing: members concentrate on solving problems and completing the assigned task Personality Conflict: interpersonal opposition based on personal dislike or disagreement  Programmed Conflict: designed to elicit different opinions without inciting people’s personal  feelings Roles: socially determined expectations of how individuals should behave in a specific position Self­managed Teams: groups of workers who are given administrative oversight for their task  domains Social Loafing: the tendency of people to exert less effort when working in groups than when  working alone Storming: the emergence of individual personalities and roles and conflicts within the group Task Role: task oriented role, consists of behavior that concentrates on getting the team’s tasks  done Chapter 13 : Groups & Teams Increasing Cooperation, Reducing Conflict Team: as a small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common  purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable Trust: reciprocal faith in others’ intentions and behaviors 13.1 Groups versus Teams Groups & Teams: How Do They Differ? What a Group Is: A Collection of People Performing as Individuals What a Team Is: A Collection of People with Common Commitment  Three traits employees like about their most admired bosses are they trust their  employees, show honesty and authenticity, and possess great team­building skills Formal versus Informal Groups  Groups can either be formal or informal o Formal groups – created to accomplish specific goals  A division, department, work group, or a committee  Temporary or permanent  o Informal groups – created for friendship  Collection of friends who hand out with one another  Those you take coffee breaks with, bowling team, service  club, “alumni group” or other voluntary organizations  Can be highly productive­even more so than formal groups Work Teams for Four Purposes: Advice, Production, Project & Action 1. Advice teams – created to broaden the information base for managerial decisions 2. Production teams – responsible for performing day­to­day operations Chapter 13 : Groups & Teams Increasing Cooperation, Reducing Conflict 3. Project teams – work to do creative problem solving, often by applying the  specialized knowledge of members of a cross­functional team 4. Action teams – work to accomplish tasks that require people with specialized  training and a high degree of coordination Self­Managed Teams: Workers with Own Administrative Oversight  A group known as continuous improvement teams are about 10­12 people and  meet for 60­90 mins once or twice a month From Continuous Improvement Teams to Self­Managed Teams  “self­managed” does not mean simply turning workers loose for doing their  own thing  Self­managed teams are an outgrowth of a blend of behavioral science and  management practice  Goal is to increase productivity and employee quality of work life Are Self­Managed Teams Effective?  Most common chores today are work scheduling and customer interaction  while the least common is hiring and firing   Have been found to have a positive effect on productivity and attitudes of self­ responsibility and control 13.2 Stages of Group & Team Development Stage 1: Forming – Why are we here? Stage 2: Storming – Why are we fighting over who’s in charge & who does what? Stage 3: Norming – Can we agree on roles & work as a team? Stage 4: Performing – Can we do the job properly? Stage 5: Adjourning – Can we help members transition out? 13.3 Building Effective Teams 1. Cooperation: We need to systematically integrate our efforts 2. Trust: We need to have reciprocal faith in each other 3. Cohesiveness: Togetherness is vital Chapter 13 : Groups & Teams Increasing Cooperation, Reducing Conflict 4. Performance Goals and Feedback 5. Motivation through Mutual Accountability 6. Size: Small teams or large teams? a. Small teams: 2­9 members for better interaction & morale i. Advantages: 1. Better interaction 2. Better morale ii. Disadvantages: 1. Fewer resources 2. Possibly less innovation 3. Unfair work distribution b. Large teams: 10­16 members for more resources & division of labor i. Advantages:  1. More resources 2. Division of labor ii. Disadvantages: 1. Less interaction 2. Lower morale 3. Social loafing 7. Roles: How team members are expected to behave a. Task roles: Getting the work done b. Maintenance roles: Keeping the team together 8. Norms: Unwritten Rules for Team Members a. Why norms are enforced i. To help the group survive – “don’t do anything that will hurt us” ii. To clarify role expectations – “you have to go along to get along” iii. To help individuals avoid embarrassing situations – “don’t call attention to yourself” iv. To emphasize the group’s important values and identity – “we’re known  for being special” 9. Groupthink: When Peer Pressure Discourages “Thinking Outside the Box” a. Cohesiveness? Or blind unwillingness? Chapter 13 : Groups & Teams Increasing Cooperation, Reducing Conflict b. Symptoms of Groupthink i. Invulnerability, inherent morality, and stereotyping of opposition ii. Rationalization of self­censorship iii. Illusion of unanimity, peer pressure, and mindguards iv. Groupthink versus “the wisdom of crowds” c. The Results of Groupthink: Decision­Making Defects i. Reduction in alternative ideas ii. Limiting of other information d. Preventing Group Think: Making criticism & other perspectives permissible i. Allow criticism ii. Allow other perspectives 13.4 Managing Conflict The Nature of Conflict: Disagreement is Normal  Dysfunctional conflict – bad for organizations  Functional conflict – good for organizations Can Too Little or Too Much Conflict Affect Performance  Too little conflict – indolence o Organizational performance suffers  Too much conflict – warfare o Workplace aggression and violence Three Kinds of Conflict: Personality, Intergroup & Cross­Cultural 1. Personality conflicts: clashes because of personal dislikes of disagreements a. Personality clashes – when individual differences can’t be resolved b. Competition for scarce resource – when two parties need the same things c. Time pressure – when people believe there aren’t enough hours to do the  work d. Communication failures – when people misperceive and misunderstand 2. Intergroup conflicts: clashes between work groups, teams & departments a. Inconsistent goals or reward systems – when people pursue different  objectives b. Ambiguous jurisdictions – when job boundaries are unclear c. Status differences – when there are inconsistencies in power and influence 3. Multicultural conflicts: clashes between cultures How to Stimulate Constructive Conflict 1. Spur competition among employees 2. Change the organization’s culture & procedures 3. Bring in outsiders for new perspectives 4. Use programmed conflict: Devil’s Advocacy & the Dialectic Method Chapter 13 : Groups & Teams Increasing Cooperation, Reducing Conflict a. Devil’s advocacy – role­playing criticism to test whether a proposal is  workable b. The dialectic method – role­playing two sides of a proposal to test whether it is workable Five Basic Behaviors to Help You Better Handle Conflict 1. Openness 2. Equality 3. Empathy 4. Supportiveness 5. Positiveness 


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