History 3211 week 15 notes
History 3211 week 15 notes 3211
Popular in Classical Greece
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Eschenbach on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3211 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Greg Anderson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Classical Greece in History at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 04/19/16
4-19-16 Euphiletus—defendant accused of the murder of Eratosthenes—said it was a lawful killing because he caught him in the act of sleeping with his wife o Logic behind this law—sleeping with someone’s wife was harmful to the family unit, every Athenian Oikos is important to the working of the polis so harming one harms everyone—becomes a concern for everyone because the harm of a particular Oikos harms the polis as a whole o Peculiar practice of considering the rape of a wife is worse than seduction because it is upsetting physically whereas seduction compromises the soul 404-371Spartan Hegemony—Sparta has the preeminence which no other polis has at this time—results in the other poleis ganging up together to try and tip the scales of balance o Developments in Sparta which changed the way in which Spartans relate to other Greeks Lysander—effectively inserts himself at the top of what was the old Athenian empire—principal commanding officer—establishes oligarchies to rule in what was left of the Athenian empire o 398—new king is on the throne—one time ally with Lysander o Agesilaus—liberates the Ionian states which had just been given over by Sparta—launches invasion of the Persian empire—Persians go to other poleis to get money—results in the Corinthian War-395-397—finally results in the King’s Peace in 386 o Thebes 382—occupation of Thebes by Spartans o Period ultimately ended because Sparta loses preeminence to Thebes after 30-year period o Once Thebes is liberated in 3749 by cross-dressing exiles, they build up a super-power state by setting up a merger between a bunch of smaller city- states o They had never truly bonded together to make a super-state until Thebes united them—now strong political and military ties between all the states which is now strong enough to take on Sparta o Special forces unit—sacred band o King Cleombrotus and the battle of Leuctra 371—Spartans outnumbered Thebans by several thousands Spartans ultimately beaten despite being considerably outnumbered 2ndphase—Theban Hegemony—371-362 o Thebans marched south towards Sparta—occupy and takeover the whole of the area of Messenia—potentially very damaging to the Spartans as that is where Sparta got all of their helots from—Messenians considered themselves ethnically different from the Spartans—Thebans liberate Messenian helots-no longer helots—incredibly damaging to Spartan way of life o Other Greek states had trouble standing by and watching while one group (Thebans) start establishing themselves as more powerful o Start to get allies to go against their force—Athens, Sparta, Elis, Arcadia o These forces aligning generate a battle of Mantinea 362 o No decisive outcome but enough to change the course of victory—both sides declare victory—father figure type of the new Theban super-state, Epamonondas, is killed during the battle—crippling to Theban progress 1 4-19-16 rd 3 phase—362-336—Rise of Philip II of Macedon o Agesilaus dies in 361—by this time the Spartans were suffering from really serious population issues—practiced spouse-sharing to avoid population issues they were worried about—didn’t work to well, by this time only 1000 full-blooded Spartan men—no longer a large factor o Thebes brought to a major halt with the death of their leader o Early years of the third phase—almost a vacuum—no single power is able to take a stronger hold over anyone else o There was a kind of space there for a new power to move in o Philip II of Macedon enters into play o Philip becomes king of Macedon 359-336 o There was no polis—better thought of as a kingdom—held together through kinship ties rather than political ties o Were the Macedonians Greek? —how can this be judged? Religion is a major factor—do they worship the Olympian gods? –the language—is it the same? Not much of Macedonian language to know how close it was to Greek— general consensus is that it was distantly related to Greek—not completely different They did worship Olympian gods but also had their own gods they worshipped as well Group sort of on the edge of the Greek world rather than part of it. o Demosthenes refers to Philip II as barbarous, meaning foreign—someone who speaks a non-Greek language—kind of a slur against him—Philip wanted to be considered a Greek but wasn’t fully accepted as full-stream Greeks o Vergina—site where all the Macedonian kings were buried—buried under mounds pf Erath—concrete entrance to a sort of underground bunker—mini temple—Greeks have invested huge amounts of money in maintaining climate-controlled conditions for these structures o Sun symbol—originally, the symbol of the Macedonian royal family o Because of potential tourist value modern Greece actually accepts Macedonia as part of their history o Philip IIroyal family claims very distinguished ancestry—Temenos of Argus— claiming they are emigrants from the Peloponnese to the north of Greece o Temenos was descendent of Heracles whose father was Zeus o Ultimately claiming to be descendants from Zeus—blood of the divinity inside establishes you as above others o Philip establishes authority in 3 ways: Builds a new capital—used to be in Aegae, new one is in Pella—new center of this kingdom—centralize Philip’s rule over the kingdom Used bribery force and persuasion to get a more unified kingdom Group of aristocrats n=known as the king’s companions—helped to further forcing of centralization New army—establishes professional, full-time army—permanent, fully trained, high-skilled soldiers Use incredibly long spears called sarisa—pike-like things with a spear on the end—up to 20 feet long 2 4-19-16 o Olynthus—Greek settlement physically destroyed in 348 by king Philip—when force was necessary, it was used—Athenians refused to get involved when they asked for help o Coast, northwest and Illyria o Thessaly—unusually flat, traditional place for horse-rearing—known for a very strong cavalry—philip enters in as a mediator and effectively ends up just taking over—359-348/7 o West—Greekish kingdom—kingdom of Epirus—Philp doesn’t effectively take it over but has a strong alliance with it through marrying a princess of Epirus, Olympias—becomes very famous as the mother of Alexander the Great o Delphi—Philip takes control of it as internal squabble left them vulnerable— establishes a kingdom in central Greece and Thermopoly from Philip— Athenians basically just watching—don’t really know what to do Athenian leader at the time Demosthenes was very keen from early on to talk with Philip and kind of slow down his progress—Athenians didn’t want to—when they ultimately do react, it is too late Peace of Philocrates—attempt by Athenians to stop the spread of Macedonian power by Philip o 338—massive turning point battle in history—battle of Chaeronea—basically the last-ditch effort for the Athenians to stop Philip—he is now starting to encroach on their territory Very decisive victory for Macedonians—effectively from this point on, Greek city-states will not be their independent selves any more—no longer lots of little city-states competing to be the hegemon, now everything is overseen by victorious Macedonia—political independence of city-states is now gone as well Whole of the sacred band was inherently killed here Athenians now under threat of compulsion made Philip an honorary Athenian, putting up a statue of him Philip himself didn’t overtly flaunt his new authority in his new territory, instead established the League of Corinth—trying to show he wasn’t a tyrant to boss them around—actually was though At this point after his greatest victory, Philip got much more ambitious— his Greek-ness was constantly questioned—wanted to prove himself as Greek so he wanted to get revenge on the Persians, liberate the Ionians, effectively defeat Persians—never got to live to see this plan go through because he dies soon after establishing the League of Corinth— assassinated—his son, Alexander, is successful in that though 3
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