Expressionist Movements ARHI 2400
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessika Song on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARHI 2400 at University of Georgia taught by Beth Fadeley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see History of Art Survey, Part II in Art History at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 04/19/16
'ZRTGUUKQPKUV▯/QXGOGPVU▯ Expressionist Movements Historical Context - Between 1900 and 1945 Europe witnessed the rise of Communism, Fascism, and Nazism, as well as the Great Depression. These decades were also a time of radical change in the art when some of the most basic assumptions about the purpose of art were challenged and what form and artwork should take. - At the turn of the 19th century, artists were breaking the standards (avant-garde), exploring modernity, and distancing from exact representation to impressionistic art. They were also urged to create abstract art as well as move away from academic salons (also staged independent exhibitions). - World War II breaks out in 1914 - The Vienna Secession shows that artists outside of France were looking to Paris for inspiration and as a standard of the movements occurring in Europe. Academic Salons and Independent Art Exhibitions 1648 French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture founded 1768 British Royal Academy of Arts founded 1855 Gustave Courbet boycotts and sets up his own “Pavilion of Realism” 1863 Napoleon III establishes the Salon des Refuses (Salon of the Rejected) 1874 The Impressionists hold their ﬁrst exhibition 1884 A group of artists form the Société des Artistes Indépendants (Society/Corporation of Independent Artists) 1886 The ﬁrst annual Salon des Independants is held in Paris 1897 Austrian artists form the Vienna Secession 1903 Henri Matisse, André Derain, and others organize the ﬁrst Salon d’Automne (Autumn Salon) 1905 The ﬁrst group of German Expressionists, Die Brücke (The Bridge), gather in Dresden 1911 A second major German Expressionist group, Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), form in Munich Fauvism (1905-1910): a style, born in Paris, of les Fauvres (French, “wild beasts”), a loose group of early 20th century Modern artists whose work emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism. - Debuted at the 1905 Salon d’Automne in Paris, described by a critic as fauvres for their use of bright color and simpliﬁed design. - Emphasized the way color represented emotion and employed intense color juxtaposition for expressive ends. Believed that pure color, such as red, “obtained stronger reactions.” Henri Matisse (1869-1954) - Begins in a traditional manner, but becomes inspired by the work in the Salon des Independants. Advised by Pissarro to visit London and study the paintings of J.M.W. Turner. Upon his return, he begins to develop his own style — a form of divisionism/pointillism to “let color speak.” - He eventually becomes hailed as an upholder of the classical tradition in French painting. - Received a lot of criticism and wrote a manifesto on color — everything to hims was about color and believed that images were a vehicle of color. Woman with a Hat - Portrait of his wife, Amélie, in a conventional manner compositionally, but the use of color expresses his avant-garde mindset. - Used color not to imitate nature, but to produce a reaction in the viewer. The Joy of Life (Le Bonheur de Vivre) - Matisse returns to the pastoral tradition and makes use of the reclining nude, exploring the sinuous nature of lines and using very heavy outlines. - Not only a representation of what he believed art should be, but also reveals that something new can be born from traditional methods. References to Titian’s pastoral scenes and Ingre’s Odalisque reclining. - Incorporates purely expressive, bright, clear colors and sensual forms, as well as an experimentation with perspective. The Scream - Although grounded in the real world, Edvard Munch’s style departs signiﬁcantly from visual reality. Munch used color, line, and ﬁgural distortion to evoke a strong emotional response from the viewer. Die Brücke (The Bridge) (1905-1913): a group of German expressionists, under the leadership of Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, who thought of themselves as the bridge between the old age and the new. - Both the Fauvres and Die Brücke shared interests in primitivist art and in expressing extreme emotion through high-keyed color that was often non-naturalistic. - Die Brücke artists modeled themselves on medieval craft guilds whose members lived together and practiced all the arts equally. - Also protested the hypocrisy and materialistic decadence of those in power. Kirchner, in particular, focused much of his attention on the detrimental effects of industrialization, such as the alienation of individuals in cities, which he felt foster a mechanized and impersonal society. - Emphasis on youth in carrying out their goal. Street, Dresden - In contrast to the panoramic urban view of the Impressionists, Kirchner’s street scene is dissonant in composition and color. - Kirchner depicts a crowded street to represent modernity, but uses color to separate this view from reality. Even the faces take on a mask-like quality. - Harshly rendered faces and clashing colors add to the expressive impact of the image. Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) (Munch, 1911-1914): a group of artists founded by Vassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc in which artistic approaches varied from artist to artist; however, the artists shared a common desire to express spiritual truths through their art. - The name of this German expressionist group is derived from Marc’s enthusiasm for horses and Kandinsky’s love of riders, combined with a shared love of the color blue. - They believed in the promotion of modern art; the connection between visual art and music; the spiritual and symbolic associations of color (speciﬁcally blue), and a spontaneous intuitive approach to painting. Also interested in primitivism. Vassily Kandinsky (1886-1944) - Born in Russia, moved to Munich in 1896 and soon developed a spontaneous and aggressively avant-garde expressionist style. - Credited with painting one of the ﬁrst purely abstract paintings. - Believed that color could be used as something autonomous, apart from form. Picture with an Archer - Kandinsky’s art becomes increasingly abstract, but this painting is not completely abstract — still representational. Untitled - Kandinsky’s ﬁrst fully abstract painting, inspired by music which was the exemplar of abstract art — explored itself internally. - Also explores the idea of synesthesia. Impression III (Concert) - Kandinsky attends Arnold Schoenberg’s concert and becomes inspired to paint this painting, which portrays his overall impression of a musical performance. - This depiction is not completely abstract in that certain areas of color are representative of the piano, the audience, etc. Improvisation 28 (second version) - One of numerous works Kandinsky produced that convey feelings with color juxtapositions, intersecting linear elements, and applied spatial relationships. - Again, not completely abstract; still representational.
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