Notes from Week 5 2/9-2/13
Notes from Week 5 2/9-2/13 Anat-A 215
Popular in Anat-A 215
Popular in Department
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
CSCI A110: Intro to Computers and Computing
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zoe Goldhirsh on Tuesday February 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anat-A 215 at Indiana University taught by Dougherty in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 133 views.
Reviews for Notes from Week 5 2/9-2/13
Lectures notes?? Yes please! Looking forward to the next set!
-Mr. Furman Bradtke
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/17/15
Anatomy A215 Intro to Basic Human Anatomy Lecture Notes from 29213 Week 5 Myology The Gross Anatomy of a keletal Muscle A Each skeletal muscle is comprised of fascicles B Each skeletal muscle is an organ C Each skeletal muscle is attached by dense regular connective tissue DEach skeletal muscle and components inside have a A Each fascicle is made up of muscle bers muscle cellmyo ber Each muscle ber is composed of myo brils myo brils masses of protein in columnscylinders inside the muscle cell ber Each myo bril is composed of myo laments Myo laments form a striation pattern banding pattern of a sarcomere contractile unit of myo bril and have two kinds 1 Thick myo laments contain the protein myosin Represent dArk bands in the striation amp bands and has a light central region called the Hzone Hzone lighter central region in the middle of an Aband It only has thick myo laments 2 Thin myo laments contain primarily the protein actin Represent nght patterns in the striations bandsl Sarcomere The contractile unit of myo bril that runs perpendicularly from Zline to Zline Zline zdisc dark line in the middle of an lband zig zag line made of proteins Muscle ber organelles and structures Word breakdowns sarc esh lemmamembrane reticulumnetwork transverseacross width Membrane sarcolemma Cytoplasm sarcoplasm stores Calcium ions Ca and releases these ions as needed for muscle contraction striations across the width of the ber Can conduct a nerve impulse rapidly to interior of muscle cell It gets the nutrients into the cell and waste product out C02 tactic acid B A Dense Regular Connective Tissue is how the skeletal muscle is attached There are TWO forms of 1 a cable like attachment that attaches muscle to bone 2 sheet like attachment C Each part of the muscle entire muscle fascicles and bers are wrapped in Word breakdowns epi on top mys muscle iumtissue endo with in 1Entire muscle is surrounded by epimysium 2 Each fascicle is surrounded by perimysium 3 Each muscle ber is surrounded by endomysium Contraction of Skeletal Muscle Process The Sliding Filament Model of Contraction 1 A nerve impulse is carried from the brainspinal cord to the muscle by the axon of a motor neuron 2 The axon meets the muscle ber at the neuromuscularjunction myoneural junction 3 The axon releases a chemical neurotransmitter called acetylcholine which bind to the sarcolemma 4 A nerve impulse is generated in the sarcolemma and it passes down the As a result the releases m ions Ca m allows for interaction between thin and thick myo laments 5 When the calcium is released it binds to thin myo laments which help the thick myo laments attach to the thin 6 Myo laments slide over one another sarcomere shortens muscle contracts 7 When the nerve impulse stops m returns to the and the myo laments slide back to their resting state Muscles of the Head Neck and Trunk and M Muscles of Facial expression A Epicranius two muscles and an 1 Frontalis elevates eyebrows and wrinkles forehead 2 Occipitalis draws scalp backward B Orbicularis Oculi closes eyes winking orbita round C Orbicularis Oris closes and puckers lips kiss D Zygomaticus Major elevates corner of mouth smile E Depressor Anguli Oris depresses corner of mouth frown F Buccinator pulls cheeks against teeth when chewing main check muscle that pulls cheeks inward G Platysma tenses skin of neck and depresses lower lip Super cial muscle of the neck and inserts at the lower lip Muscles of Mastication chewing All of these muscles elevate the mandible A Masseter elevates mandible B Temporalis elevates and retracts mandible C Medial and Lateral Pterygoids elevates mandible and moves mandible sidetoside 3 Muscles of the Tongue GlossTongue A Genioglossus protracts protrudessticks out and depresses tongue B Styloglossus retracts and elevates tongue originates from the styloid process and inserts at the tongue C Hyoglossus depresses sides of tongue originates from hyoid and inserts at the side of thetongue 4 Neck Muscles A lateral Neck musce Sternocleidomastoid on each side individually they rotate the head to the opposite side than the muscle being used ie if you are engaging your right sternocleidomastoid you will be rotating to the left if used together they ex the neckhead looking down to the oow This muscle originates from the sternum and clavicle and inserts itself at the mastoid process B Posterior Neck Muscle Splenius Capitus individually they rotate head to one side SAME side as muscle being used Together they extend the neckhead looking uprightstraig ht forward C Anterior Neck Muscles I Suprahyoid muscles all located above the hyoidal muscles above hyoid elevate hyoid Digastric ditwo gastricbely elevates hyoid and depresses mandible pulls down to open mouth Stylohyoid elevates hyoid bone originates from styloid process and inserts at the hyoid Mylohyoid elevates hyoid and raises oor of mouth Geniohyoid elevates hyoid bone originates from mandible and inserts at the hyoid I lnfrahyoid muscles below the hyoid All these muscles DEPRESS Sternohyoid depresses hyoid originates from sternum and inserts at hyoid 0mohyoid depresses hyoid omoshouder originates from shoulderscapula and inserts at hyoid These next two muscles insert or originate at the thyroid cartilageatoms apple Sternothyroid depresses thyroid cartilage originates at sternum inserts at thyroid Thyrohyoid depresses hyoid and raises thyroid cartilage originates from thyroid cartilage and inserts at hyoid 5 Back Muscles only deeper layers that are associated with back movement 1 Deep back muscles muscles of the vertebral column Quadratus Lumborum quad4 together they extend lumbar vertebral column makes spine straight unilaterally each laterally exes vertebral column lean side to side Each originates from the iliac crest and inserts at the lumbar vertebrae Erector Spinae erectstraight extend the vertebral column Consists of 1 lliocostalis most lateral 2 Longissimus intermediate 3 Spinalis most medial 6 Thorax Muscles A peep Thorax Muscles Diaphragm contraction pulls the central portion down increasing vertical dimensions of thorax makes chest cavity larger for 02 External Intercostals i nte r betwee n costrib originates from rib above to rib below elevates ribs during inhalation expansionmore 02 Internal Intercostals ori nates from rib below to rib above depresses ribs during exhalation Scalenes elevates ribs during inspiration Connects form cervical region to rib 1 and 2 7 Abdominal Muscles A As a group these muscles collectively do 2 of the same things the abdominal contents and the vertebral column 1 External Abdominal Oblique most supr cial at angle 2 Internal Abdominal Oblique under the external oblique 3 Transversus Abdominis deepest of abdominal under the internal oblique 4 Rectus Abdominis ABS connect from sternum to pubis bone rectusstrapIikeruns parallel 8 Muscles of the Pelvic Floor and Perineum A Known as the quot pelvic diaphragmquot quot urogenital diaphragmquot 1 Closes inferior opening of pevis 2 Supports the pelvic organs Muscles of the Upper Extremities Muscles that move the 1 Trapezius elevates depresses retracts and rotates scapula 2 Rhomboids major minor elevate and retracts scapula comes from scapula inserts at spinal cmumn 3 Levator Scapulae elevates scapula scapula l cervical vertebra NUMBERS 13 ALL ELEVATE THE SCAPULA 4 Pectoralis Minor front of the chest protracts pulls forward and depresses downward the scapula 5 Serratus Anterior same as pectoralis minor function comes of the rst 4 ribs and inserts at the scapula Muscles that move the 1 Pectoralis major exes adducts and medially rotates the humerus 2 Latissimus Dorsi adducts extends and medially rotates armhumerus NUMBERS 12 ORIGINAT E FROM AXIAL SKEL 3 Deltoid abducts exes and extends armhumerus 4 Coracobrachialis exes and adducts armhumerus 5 Teres Major extends adducts and medially rotates armhumerus NUMBERS 35 ORIGINAT E FROM SCAPULA 6 Subscapularis medially rotates armhumerus 7 Supraspinatus abducts and laterally rotates armhumerus 8 lnfraspinatus laterally rotates armhumerus 9 Teres Minor laterally rotates armhumerus NUMBERS 69 ARE ROTATOR CUFF MUSCLES Muscles that 1 Biceps Brachii exes the forearmelbow 2 Brachialis exes the forearmelbow 3 Brachioradialis exes the forearmelbow 4 Triceps brachii extends the forearmelbow 5 Anconeus extends the forearmelbow Forearm Muscles ANTERIQR Super cial group 1 Pronator Teres pronates forearm 2 Flexor Carpi Radialis exes wrist and abducts hand 3 Palmaris Longus exes wrist 4 Flexor Carpi Ulnaris exes wrist and adducts hand Intermediate group 1 Flexor Digitorum Super cialis exes wrist and exes digits 25 at the MP and PIP joints MP metacarpalphalangeal PIP proximal interphalangeal Deep Group 1 Flexor Digitorum Profundus exes the wrist and digits 25 at the MP PIP and DIP joints DIP distal interphalangeal 2 Flexor Pollicis Longus exes thumb 3 Pronator quadratus pronates forearm W Super cial group 1 Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus extends wrist and abducts hand 2 Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis extends wrist and abducts hand 3 Extensor Digitorum extends wrist and extends digits 25 at MP PIP and DIP joints 4 Extensor Carpi Ulnaris extends wrist and adducts hand Deep Group 1 Supinator supinates forearm 2 Abductor Pollicis Longus abducts thumb 3 Extensor Pollicis Longus extends thumb Hand Muscles 1 Thenar muscles moves the thumb 2 Hypothenar muscles moves the little nger 3 Midpalmar muscles move ngers 25 and ex the MP joints and extend the PIPDIP joints 1 Lubricales 4 2 Palmar lnterossei 3 also adducts ngers 3 Dorsal lnterossei 4 also abducts ngers Muscles of Lower Extremity THIGH MUSCLES Anterior 1 lliacus ex the thighhip 2 Psoas Major ex the thighhip 3 Sartorius ex the thighhip and exes the legknee 4 Quadriceps Femoris extends the legknee composed of four muscles 1 Rectus Femoris 2 Vastus Medialis 3 Vastus lntermedius 4 Vastus Lateralis COMMON INSERTION quadriceps tendon l becomes patellar ligament Medial compartment 1 Adductors longus brevis magnus adducts thighhip and exes thighhip 2 Pectineus adducts thighhip and exes thighhip 3 Gracilis exes legknee and adduct thighhip Lateral compartment 1 Tensor Fascia Latae abducts thigh and connects to the iliotibial band tract IT band Posterior compartment 1 Gluteus Maximus extends thighhip 2 Gluteus Medius abducts hipthigh 3 Gluteus Minimus Abducts hipthigh 4 Biceps Femoris hamstring muscle extend the thigh and hip and ex legknee 5 Semitendinosus hamstring muscle extend the thigh and hip and ex legknee 6 Semimembranosus hamstring muscle extend the thigh and hip and ex legknee MOST MEDIAL LEG MUSCLES Anterior Compartment 1 Tibialis Anterior dorsi exes footankle and inverts foot 2 Extensor Digitorum Longus extends toes 25 and dorsi exes footankle 3 Extensor Hallucis Longus extends big toe and dorsi exes anklefoot Lateral Compartment 1 Fibular Peroneus Longus plantar exes footankle and everts foot 2 Fibular Peroneus Brevis plantar exes footankle and everts foot Posterior Compartment Super cial group 1 Gastrocnemius plantar exes footankle and exes legknee 2 Soleus calf plantar exes footankle Deep Group 1 Popliteus exes legknee 2 Flexor Hallucis Longus plantar exes footankle and exes the big toe 3 Flexor Digitorum Longus plantar exes footankle and exes toes 25 4 Tibialis Posterior plantar exes footankle and inverts foot FOOT MUSCLES dorsum of foot 1 Extensor Digitorum Brevis extends toes 24 2 Extensor Hallucis Brevis extends big toe plantarsole side of foot 1 Four layers of exors abductors and adductors oftoes
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'