Rise of Nationalism in the East Notes
Rise of Nationalism in the East Notes hist 1031
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by DrPhilGood on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hist 1031 at East Carolina University taught by Michael B Gross in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see World Civilizations Since 1500 in History at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 04/19/16
Rise of Nationalism in the East A) AntiImperialist Sentiment Were upset because they were brought into a war that they did not cause The war showed that the European countries were vulnerable Had to call the colonies to help them fight Developed ideologies that the European countries used to form themselves Nationalism B) Europe weakened Used up many resources during WWI Distracted by the carnage of the war C) Document: A Commentary on the Commentator by Sayyid Jamal ad Din alAfghani (1881) “alAfghani” Born in Iran A Shiite Muslim (a) Family descended from Muhammad Had to change his name to alAfghani, but was still imprisoned many times Political advisor and argued against acceptance of Western ways Importance of education In the Western world, education allows a person to become independent and improve their social status (a) Become socially mobile (b) Leads to one not knowing what people they belong to A good education in a traditionally Muslim society allows unifying all ranks of society (a) Stay in your social role (b) Allows them to know where they are Condition of the current Muslim society Educational system has been corrupted Muslim people are confused are looking for a sage (wise person) (a) Sayyid alAfghani thought that “the commentator” would be that sage The commentator was Ahmed Khan Wrote Commentary on the Quran Problem with Khan was that he challenged Muslim tradition (a) Told them to abandon their Islamic beliefs (b) Supported Western ways Two different ways to read a sacred text: read the traditional way (literal) or the way you interpret it (a) Fundamentalist reading is the literal interpretation of the text (b) Ahmed Khan read the Quran in the interpretive way Said he learned it in the West Said if people stopped reading their sacred text in the traditionally way then they will lose everything and become Westernized Muslims Helped support fanatical, antiWestern hatred D) Document: Fundamentals of National Reconstruction by Sun Yatsen (1923) Sun Yatsen Born in China to farmers Lived in Hawaii and got a medical degree in Hong Kong Was exiled from China for 16 years after a coup plot failed Was exiled again after leading revolutionary movement (a) Made president of China when he came back Wrote the text as principles to what needs to be done after a successful revolution (a) Is a manifesto (statement of creed) Three fundamental principles of revolution Revolution has been a principle in China for thousands of years Nationalism (a) Forefathers have been Nationalistic (b) Strive to maintain independence Move ahead toward the goal of ideal brotherhood Democracy (a) Chinese never had democratic government before, but has had democratic sentiments (b) Adopt the form of government that has been practiced in the West (c) Create a constitutional government Separate powers into legislative, executive, and judicial Want to add two more branches: censorial and examinative (i) Examinative makes sure members of a branch is right for their position (ii) Censorial has keeps the other branches in check and makes sure they are doing their job Livelihood (a) Focuses on the economic state (b) Fan of state ownership (c) Saw the West and the large disparities of wealth by the capitalist system set there (d) To prevent economic unrest Says this is what they are working toward Modernizing China Says the Chinese people are capable of doing all of this E) Document: Hind Swaraj by Mohandas Gandhi (1938) Gandhi Trained as a lawyer in England (a) Practiced in South Africa and was disturbed by apartheid Policy of nonviolent resistance to reform South Africa and India (a) Was a pacifist Lead the movement in India to overthrow British rule Using nonviolent resistance is better Violence and oppression against those that have used violence and oppression against you justifies the use of violence and oppression Using peaceful resistance breaks the cycle Brings down the British government by acquiring rights through suffering Removes the British of their moral high ground (a) Causes them to lose the public’s approval Implemented peaceful resistance by protesting the Salt Tax Salt is very important (a) Help hold in water and makes sure people don’t die of dehydration (b) Extremely useful because of the heat in India (c) British tax was a stranglehold on the Indian people because it impacted if they lived or died Protesters marched to the sea and sat down (a) 23 mile march (b) Making their own salt using the ocean (c) Were beaten by the British Already knew how to do peaceful protest Had been practiced before in India Says history records war and conflict (a) Because humans are still around, peaceful resistance must have been accomplished to make sure everyone didn’t kill one another People need to remember what it means to be Indian (a) Indians have the history of peaceful resistance (b) You can’t have peaceful resistance if you don’t remember who you are
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