Pharmacology PPT 301 Week 13 Notes
Pharmacology PPT 301 Week 13 Notes PPT 301
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lexie Stenson on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PPT 301 at University of North Dakota taught by James Haselton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Human physiology in Physiology at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 04/19/16
Pharmacology 315 Week 13 Cyclophosphamide Trade Name: Cytoxan Therapeutic Class: Antineoplastic Therapeutic Use: Used alone, or in combination with other drugs, against a wide variety of cancers, including Hodkin’s disease, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer. Immunosuppression for the prophylaxis of organ transplant rejection and to treat severe rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Pharmacologic Class: Alkylating agent; nitrogen mustard Mechanism of Action: Alkylates and crosslinks to DNA, disrupting its replication Doxorubicin Trade Name: Adriamycin Therapeutic Class: Antineoplastic Therapeutic Use: Broad-‐spectrum cytotoxic antibiotic, prescribed for solid tumors of the lung, breast, ovary, and bladder, and for various leukemias and lymphomas Pharmacologic Class: Antitumor antibiotic Mechanism of Action: Attaches to DNA, distorting its double helical structure and preventing normal DNA and RNA synthesis Methotrexate Trade Name: Rheumatrex Therapeutic Class: Antineoplastic Therapeutic Use: Used alone or in combination with other drugs for choriocarcinoma, osteogenic sarcoma, leukemias, head and neck cancers, brain carcinoma, and lung carcinoma. Has powerful immunosuppressant that can be used to treat severe rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, lupus, and psoriasis that are unresponsive to safer medications Pharmacologic Class: Antimetabolite, folic acid analog Mechanism of Action: Blocks synthesis of folic acid (vitamin B9), inhibits DNA replication Tamoxifen Trade Name: None Therapeutic Class: Antineoplastic Therapeutic Use: Preferred drug for treating metastatic breast cancer. Effective against breast tumor cells that require estrogen for their growth, which are known as estrogen receptor (ER) positive cells. It is the only antineoplastic that is approved for prophylaxis of breast cancer, for high-‐risk patients who are at risk of developing the disease. In addition, it is approved as adjunctive therapy in women following mastectomy to decrease the potential for cancer in the opposite breast. Pharmacologic Class: Hormonal agent, estrogen receptor blocker Mechanism of Action: Blocks estrogen receptors on breast cancer cells Vincristine Trade Name: Oncovin Therapeutic Class: Antineoplastic Therapeutic Use: Usually prescribed in combination with other antineoplastics for the treatment of Hodgkin’s and non-‐Hodgkin’s lymphomas, leukemias, Kaposi’s sarcoma, Wilms’ tumor, bladder carcinoma, and breast carcinoma Pharmacologic Class: Vinca alkaloid, mitotic inhibitor, natural product Mechanism of Action: Cell-‐cycle-‐specific (M-‐phase) agent that kills cancer cells by preventing their ability to complete mitosis by inhibiting microtubule formation in the mitotic spindle Dextromethorphan Trade Name: Robitussin DM Therapeutic Class: Cough suppressant Therapeutic Use: Treatment of dry, hacking, nonproductive coughing Pharmacologic Class: Antitussive, non-‐opiate Mechanism of Action: Suppresses the medullary cough center Diphenhydramine Trade Name: Benadryl Therapeutic Class: Respiratory tract agent; Drug to treat allergies Therapeutic Use: Treat minor symptoms of allergy and the common cold such as sneezing, runny nose, and tearing of the eyes. Other indications include Parkinson’s disease, motion sickness, and insomnia Pharmacologic Class: H1-‐receptor antagonist; antihistamine, 1 generation Mechanism of Action: Antagonizes central and peripheral histamine H1 receptors; suppresses the medullary cough center (antitussive); possesses anticholinergic properties, resulting in antidyskinetic, antiemetic and sedative effects Fluticasone Trade Name: Flonase Therapeutic Class: Inhaled corticosteroid; Drug to treat allergies; anti-‐inflammatory Therapeutic Use: Treat seasonal allergic rhinitis Pharmacologic Class: Intranasal corticosteroid Mechanism of Action: Stimulates lipocortin, which inhibits phosphodiesterase A2, the precursor of inflammatory mediators Oxymetazoline Trade Name: Afrin Therapeutic Class: Nasal decongestant Therapeutic Use: Treatment of nasal decongestion Pharmacologic Class: Sympathomimetic Mechanism of Action: Activates alpha-‐adrenergic receptors in the sympathetic nervous system, causing arterioles in the nasal passages to constrict, thus drying the mucous membranes Beclomethasone Trade Name: Qvar Therapeutic Class: Anti-‐inflammatory drug for asthma and allergic rhinitis Therapeutic Use: A preferred drug for the long-‐term management of persistent asthma in both children and adults Pharmacologic Class: Inhaled corticosteroid Mechanism of Action: Reduced inflammation, thus decreasing the frequency of asthma attacks Ipratropium Trade Name: Atrovent Therapeutic Class: Bronchodilator Therapeutic Use: Relieve and prevent the bronchospasm that is characteristic of asthma and COPD. When combined with albuterol (Combivent), it is a preferred drug for treating bronchospasms due to COPD, including bronchitis and emphysema. An alternative to short-‐ acting beta agonists, and for patients experiencing severe asthma exacerbations. It is sometimes combined with beta agonists or corticosteroids to provide additive bronchodilation Pharmacologic Class: Anticholinergic Mechanism of Action: Antagonizes acetylcholine receptors, producing bronchodilation Salmeterol Trade Name: Serevent Therapeutic Class: Bronchodilator Therapeutic Use: Management of chronic asthma Pharmacologic Class: Beta2-‐adrenergic agonist Mechanism of Action: Selectively binds to beta2-‐adrenergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle to cause bronchodilation Zafirlukast Trade Name: Accolate Therapeutic Class: Anti-‐inflammatory drug for asthma prophylaxis Therapeutic Use: Prophylaxis of persistent, chronic asthma Pharmacologic Class: Leukotriene modifier Mechanism of Action: Prevents airway edema and inflammation by blocking leukotriene receptors in the airways