Sexual Dysfunctions PSYCH 3830
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Margaret Bloder on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 3830 at Clemson University taught by Pam Alley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 04/19/16
Sexual Dysfunctions I. Normal Sexual Response Cycle A. Female Sexual Response Cycle (Masters and Johnson, 1960s) Stage Description Excitement Vasocongestion: engorgement of blood vessels in genital area Transudation: vaginal lubrication Tenting Effect: lengthening and expansion of vagina and elevation of the uterus Fibrillations: very rapid, irregular contractions of the uterus Sex flush: reddening or darkening of the skin Myotonia: increase in muscle tension all over the body Increased heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration Plateau Orgasmic platform: engorged tissue Seminal pool: small pocket behind vagina; semen is initially stored here Orgasm Very rapid, very rhythmic, regular contractions of the uterus and anal sphincter Resolution Females body returns back to normal B. Male Sexual Response Cycle (Masters and Johnson, 1960s) Stage Description Excitement Vasocongestion: increased blood flow, engorgement of blood vessels Penile tumescence: an erection Widening of the urethral opening (opening at the tip of the penis) Thickening of scrotal sac and elevation of testes Sex flush Myotonia Increased heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration Plateau Continuation: erection maintained, darkening of the penis Orgasm Emission stage of ejaculation: semen starts collecting in urethra bowl) Expulsion stage of ejaculation: contractions Resolution “Refractory period”: males body returns to normal -Unusual to have more than one orgasm in a row II. Sexual Dysfunctions A. What is a Sexual Dysfunction? Group of disorders that cause clinically significant distress and involve a recurrent sexual problem in a person’s desire for sexual gratification, their capacity to respond sexually OR their ability to experience sexual pleasure DSM assuming that the problem is occurring in about 75-100% of all sexual experiences Also presuming that there is adequate sexual stimulation About 43% of all women will experience a sexual dysfunction About 31% of all men will experience a sexual dysfunction Consequence of both medical and psychological factors There is a relationship between prevalence of sexual dysfunction and education o The more you are educated, the less likely you are to have a sexual dysfunction Classifying Sexual Dysfunctions Lifelong (Primary) Acquired Has been a lifelong (Secondary) problem Develops after a period of normal functioning Generalized Ex: Joe has never Ex: As a lad, Joe could Causes problems in been able to attain an attain an erection, but any and all sexual erection, regardless of 10 years later, he situations the type of sexual cannot attain an activity. erection, regardless of the type of sexual activity. Situational Ex: Joe has never Ex: As a lad, Joe could Causes problems in been able to attain an attain an erection with some sexual erection with a a partner or through situations partner even though masturbation, but 10 he can through years later, he can no masturbation longer attain an erection with a partner even though he still can through masturbation. Fantasy Model of Sex (Zilbergeld) Sexual myths, sexual pressure contributes to development of sexual dysfunction Media Ex: “A good sexual experience needs to end in an orgasm” B. Types of Sexual Dysfunctions Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: persistent or recurrent deficit in sexual fantasies and desire for sex o Increase with age (testosterone levels decrease) Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder: marked deficit in sexual fantasies and desire for sex AND/OR absence or deficiency of sexual excitement (unable to become lubricated) o Increase with age (lower levels of estrogen) o Most common sexual dysfunction for women o One of the easier problems to fix Erectile Disorder: marked difficulty in achieving or sustaining penile erection until completion of sexual activity o Increase with age o Most research done on this disorder o Another term for it is “impotent” o About 50% of all men have this problem from time to time, but has to be recurrent in order to get the diagnosis Female Orgasmic Disorder: marked delay, infrequency, or absence of orgasm AND/OR marked reduction in the intensity of an orgasm o Also known as “anorgasmia” or “frigid” o About 10% of all females have lifelong generalized anorgasmia o Rate is highest between ages 21-24 o Treatment is very successful Premature (Early) Ejaculation: persistent or recurrent ejaculation occurring during partnered sexual activity within approximately one minute following vaginal penetration and before the person wishes it o Most common sexual dysfunction for males Delayed Ejaculation: marked delay, infrequency, or absence of orgasm during sexual activity o Least common sexual dysfunction for males o Most typically limited to penile-vaginal intercourse (can ejaculate by masturbating, oral sex, etc.) Genito-Pelvic Pain/Penetration Disorder (female or male): marked genital pain, anxiety, or difficulty (sometimes including the tensing of the pelvic muscles) prior to or during vaginal penetration o Not limited to penile-vaginal (can be during a pelvic exam, putting a tampon in, etc.) Substance/Medication-Induced Sexual Dysfunction: persistent or recurrent sexual dysfunctions entirely due to the use of a substance or medication All Sexual Dysfunctions: Occur for at least 6 months Cause clinically significant distress in the individual Are not better explained by: o A nonsexual mental disorder o Another medical condition o Severe relationship distress o Other significant stressors o A substance/medication (with the exception of Substance/Medication-Induced Sexual Dysfunction) C. General Causes of Sexual Dysfunctions 1. Medications and illicit drugs 2. Psychological factors 3. Relationship problems D. Treatment of Sexual Dysfunctions Relapse prevention program Medical treatments (surgery: penile prosthesis) o Expensive o Very successful o 25,000 men every year have this procedure Viagra (used as heart medicine) o Potential side effects Sex Therapy o Talk therapy o Mutual responsibility (focus on both people in the relationship) o Education (reasonable expectations, myths) o Performance anxiety o Interpersonal factors
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