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ASCI 112 lecture 1

by: Yuran Liu
Yuran Liu
Cal Poly
GPA 3.67

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Lecture 1 ASCI 112 scientific method
Principles of Animal Science
Professor Burroughs
Class Notes
Animal Science
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yuran Liu on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASCI 112 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Professor Burroughs in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Principles of Animal Science in Animal Science and Zoology at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.

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Date Created: 04/19/16
Lecture 1 The Scientific Method and Scientific Principles 1. What is science? Science is a process of discovering how the physical world works. i.e. how things relate to each other 1) Process primarily inductive vs. deductive Inductive = leads to “possible” or “probable” connections among things Deductive = leads to “certain” conclusions 2) Deductive reasoning: Reasoning from cause and effect 3) Inductive reasoning  Generalization: consistent observations of something in a subset(sample) is  construed to be true of the whole set(population)  2. What is animal science? Animal science is one of the oldest “sciences” as it began when man first began  domesticating animals about 15,000 years ago. 3. The scientific method 1) Observe some aspect of the universe.  Natural phenomenon 2) Invent a tentative description, called a hypothesis (educated guess,) that is  consistent with what you have observed.  Hypothesis  It is not a question. It is the answer to that question.  Basis of scientific knowledge  A proposed idea that explains the relationship among some observations  or evidence  Must be testable  Hypotheses that successfully pass testing → Theories  Prove by many scientist with a long time.  It is not a question. A guess! Ex: Ladybugs are a good natural pesticide for treating aphid infected plaints. 3) Use the hypothesis to make predictions. 4) Test those predictions by experiments or further observations and modify the  hypotheses in the light of your results. 5) Repeat steps 3 and 4 until there are no discrepancies between theory and  experiment and/or observation. Why? Human errors Outliners Natural variability Reinforce the validity Decrease margin of errors  “Theory” means different things to different audiences  To scientists: a theory represents certainly and is a unifying explanation  for a broad range of observations.  To the general public: a theory implies a lack of knowledge or guess Scientists’ acceptance of theory is provisional. Possibility always remains that future evidence will cause a theory to be  revised. 4. Scientific Principles 1) Repeatable 2) Obtained by same and other observers 3) Objective (vs. subjective) (have a standard) 4) Adequate numbers (n) (sample size)


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