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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katherine Heighway on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to C C 301 at a university taught by Thomas Hubbard in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views.
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Date Created: 02/18/15
12215 The Bronze Age I Act 1 17951900 Assumption had been that Homer had composed the Iliad and Odyssey and that they were truere ected history F A Wolf questioned existence of Homer New spirit of inquiry that looks at the poems questioning the assumptions held 0 End of 18th century 0 Other group defended the history of the poems and existence of Homer 0 Tried to match up topographic landscape with things that Homer described I Specifically mounds in Turkey associated with the heroes ex Tomb of Achilles I Scholars argued that Troy was an actual place I People started to see that things were deposited over time so they could dig and find old things I Excavation of Pompeii I Same time frame beginning of 19th century Napoleon interested in Egypt and documenting exploration in general I Heinrich Schliemann 18221890 0 Important in the birth of the Bronze Age Passion for the greek past Businessman who becomes an archaeologist Wants to find Troy Starts with the Odyssey and tries to locate various places that are found in it on the island of Ithaca I Digs up some graves I Projects himself into the past I Then moves to the area around Troy I Meets Frank Calvert who owns half of the mound I Calvert is a hugely unsuccessful archaeologist I Schliemann decides that Calvert could be right in that Troy was where his mound is I Start excavating together I Rips off Calvert I Schliemann s Great Trench 0 Digs down too far 0 Finds Priam s Treasure Kind of Troy treasure of Helen of Troy 0 Finds many objects that match descriptions in the Iliad 0 Culture of the Mycenaens I After Schliemann dies goes to his younger more experienced associate Dorpfeld 0 Figures out there are 12 cities stacked on top of each other in the trench 0 Troy was the 6th city I Act II 19001950 0 O O O O 0 By end of 1950 jewels of Helen are gone They connected different styles of architecture I Sir Arthur Evans 0 O 0 Interested in world that Schliemann has opened up Evans more careful archaeologist Discovers brand new culture I Excavations at Knossos Minoan culture I No Minoans in the Bronze Age I Calls them Minoans because in the Greek myth Knossos is where the minotaur lives Makes a relative chronology for the Bronze Age I Comes up with scheme that we still use to talk about the Aegean Bronze Age today I Divided into three cultures I Minoan Helatic and Cyclatic I Early middle and late stage I Early Bronze Age 30002000 BC I Middle Bronze Age 20001550 BC I Late Bronze Age 1550 ca 1100 I Late Minoan 1 1675 ca 1470 I Minoan culture 0 O O 0000 Labyrinth themed cities highly decorated Source of gold Clear evidence of contact with other cultures that come to re ect Minoan religious ideology Documents written in indecipherable characters Into bulls Storage and redistribution of goods Similar to the Mycenaans I In contact to each other I Mycenae culture 0 O O O Hierarchal society Access to high value items Ideology of military con ict New powerful and connected I Act III 1950present O O O O O 0 Starting the use of carbon14 dating messed up by radiation New discovery city where Santorini s volcano covered it up Living in a time where Minoan culture was dominant Art depicted cult activities No people like Pompeii Prosperity brought to an end by the eruption of Thera the volcano I Clear evidence of Minoans in the Nile Delta in Egypt fresco art O Pushes Minoans further in time 0 Cretans also have association with the Egyptians 12715 0 Mycenaean art 0 Fine art in 1200 BC 0 Kraken on pottery 0 Regression of art in 1000 BC Dark Ages I Soon after Mycenae was destroyed I Urban civilization ceased to exist in Greece 0 Population spread out 0 Bronze Age 0 Made things out of bronze I Copper and titanium 0 Neither materials native in Greece 0 Metal work died out because of this 0 Perhaps explains why level of artistic skill took a step backward during the Dark Ages 0 Art had the proto geometric style not many figural representations 0 Iron Age 0 Made things out of iron 0 Needed much hotter oven to make iron 0 Iron native in Greece I Making a virtue out of necessity 0 Mystery of time of economic decline and isolation 0 Things start coming back together during 8th century 700 s I Seen in ceramics I Still geometric but finer detail I Urban centers inhabited again 0 People felt safer I Went back to coastal areas I Crossing of the seas again I Level of prosperity advanced I Greeks became to have a writing system 30003100 BCE Crete Early Minoan Greece Early Hellodic Islands Early Cycladic 21001600 BCE Crete Middle Minoan Greece Middle Hellodic Islands Middle Cycladic 16001150 BCE Crete Late Minoan Greece Late Hellodic Islands Late Cyclodic 1150900 BCE The Dark Ages 4007 00 BCE The Creosotic Period 0 Iliad and The Odyssey 0 Most likely written in the late 8th century 0 How did these early epics come to exist Are they really the work of one author I Homeric question I F A Wolf 0 In the late 1700s proposed a methodology for interpreting the Homeric Poems 0 Analysis 0 Homeric poems performed for many generations by rhapsodes I Professional performers I Would try to outdo each other by adding more to the poems I Most likely added a lot of length to the original poems creating the version we read today 0 Theory that Books 14 were added by rhapsodes 0 1930 0 Billman Perry and his student Albert Ward I Perry was very interested in looking at the performance of poetry in an anthropological perspective I Perry visited Bosnia I During the early days of tape recording technology 0 Recorded the performances of the Bosnian poets 0 Found that these poets were completely illiterate I Could still compose and perform long poems 0 Found that no two performances were ever the same I Perry and Ward asked themselves how come these poets could pull together such complex narratives and adapt so well for each individual performance I Perry noticed that in these poems like the Homeric poems there is a lot of repetition O No one has been able to prove that the whole Homeric poems were formulaic 0 Point of view that the Homeric poems were oral derived I John Miles Foley 0 Says that there was an underlying oralderived tradition among poets I Metrical poems to assist the poet 0 Iliad and The Odyssey most likely actually involved some level of writing due to their complexity 0 Some of the earliest writing of Greeks were lines of verse painted on ceramics O Suggests that people had the idea of using writing as a way of making verse permanent instead of just being performed 0 Ruth Finnegan 0 Found that there was a lot of memorization involved in the performance of long poems 0 Adam Perry one of Billman Perry s critics his son I Pointed out that the if the poems were just a part of oralderived tradition why is it that we do not have many epic poems of similar quality of The Odyssey and the Iliad I Point that cannot be refuted 12915 I Odyssey a contrast to the Iliad 0 In that in the Iliad theme was having your name known by everyone 0 Odysseus is a man of reserve careful about letting people know who he is o Motif of disguise 0 Odyssey begins in medias res O Begins in the middle 0 Complex narrative order 0 Begins 10 years after Trojan War when Odysseus is stranded on the island of Kalypso 0 Flashback narrative when Odysseus tells his story 0 Anger of Poseidon O Explains why Odysseus is stuck on island of Kalypso O Polythemes son of Poseidon cursed Odysseus for blinding him causing anger of Poseidon against Odysseus 0 After Prologue assembly of the Olympian gods 0 Structure of relationship between mortals and immortals I Human level and divine level of motivation I Zeus speaks of humans blaming Gods for everything 0 Humans capable of evil 0 Athene objects 0 God of cunning much like Odysseus O Patron of heroes I Sympathetic of Odysseus I Good man who suffers all types of prevails I Poseidon not attending this assembly so clever to bring this us I Convinced that Odysseus should be allowed to go back home to Ithaka I Athene appears as a helper to Odysseus always in disguise I Law of Homeric poems never appear openly as gods to mortals 0 Again emphasizing the motif of disguise 0 Don t meet Odysseus until Book 5 0 Motif of disguise Stranger for four books Technique of narrative retardation Books 14 Odysseus seen in thirdperson perspective Perhaps the poem begins with Telemachus perspective because we become aware of how great the problems in Ithaka are in Odysseus absence 0 Real plot of The Odyssey is when Odysseus returns to Ithaka 0 Telemachus comes across as a weak character 0 Says the gods should have just willed his father to die in the Battle of Troy 0 Mentor encourages him to search for his father and uses model of Orestes who killed the man who killed his father 0 In The Odyssey the king Odysseus is missing 0 Anarchy 0 People mistreated I Suitors attacking house of the king 0 Odyssey warns against the problems that come in a society without a king 0 O O 0 2315 0 Three different songs sung by Demodochus 0 First song Trojan War Quarrel between Achilles and Odysseus I Ironic because nobody knows at this point that Odysseus is present I Metaphor for competition between the Iliad and the Odyssey and the different qualities that Achilles and Odysseus stand for 0 Achilles the hero of force I Odysseus hero of intellectual cunning I Odysseus cries I Odysseus challenged to athletic event by Alkinoos 00000 O O O Alkinoos claims that there is no greater feat than athletic ability Must have seemed very naive to Odysseus after all he has been through Alkinoos is implying that Odysseus is not one of them Athletics were in the archaic time only part of the aristocracy In response Odysseus uses contrast between physical endowment and intellect I He then throws disc to show that he is better than any of them despite his age I This displays that it isn t even important what is in your head is most important Hospitality an ethical obligation during archaic times Odysseus given hospitality without them even knowing his name Welcome first ask who they are later Delayed identification Brute force of the Cyclopes vs intellectual cunning of Odysseus 0 Nature vs Culture 0 Anonymity vs Identity 0 Hospitality theme bad hospitality I Cave of Ios O Gives him bag of winds to go home 0 Problem was that he did not tell fellow sailors what was in the bag 0 They thought it was a bag of treasures that he wasn t going to share 0 They open bag and release the winds blowing them off course back to Ios island 0 Ios says they must be cursed and that he cannot help Odysseus o o 0 2515 Rhythm of alternation between hostile and friendly interactions Island of Aeaea inhabited by the witch Circe Turned men into pigs Hermes meets Odysseus and tells him about Circe Odysseus men turned into pigs because they were too easily seduced I Straits of Messina O 0 Narrow passage between Italy and Sicily Skylla inhabited cliff overlooking the straits I Along with the sirens I Her six dogs head would snatch up men on one side of the straits I Danger on the other side I Charybdis whirl pool that would suck up anything in it s reach I Helios god of the sun 0 O O Odysseus men stranded on his island Only thing to eat were the sacred cattle of Helios Thus Helios destroys Odysseus ships O Odysseus survived because he was the only one who didn t eat the cattle 0 Then he oats to island of Kalypso 21015 I Odysseus goes to talk to Penelope who has many mixed feelings at this point 0 She is skeptical O Tests Odysseus by talking about moving the bed I She knew that Odysseus would know that the bed was immovable 0 Through being cautious she is adopting the same cunning characteristics as Odysseus 0 Book 24 0 Thought to have been added later 0 No resolution of the epic 0 See souls of the suitors going to the underworld 0 See Agamemnon and Achilles talking to each other and speculating what happened to make the suitors come down to the underworld 0 High point Odysseus goes to meet his father Laertes I Isolated in the countryside I Helpless in helping Odysseus previously I Miserable state I Odysseus first tries to deceive Laertes even though it is not necessary 0 Almost as if he is so obsessed with disguise after learning his lesson of not revealing his true identity curse of Poseidon Book 24 brings us back to the political theme Reassertion of authority by the royal family 0 Theme of old age reinvigorated I Old man Laertes comes back to life reunited with his son 0 Odyssey started with theme of youth with Telemachos and ended with theme of old age with Laertes I Whole cycle of human life I Journey from youth to adulthood to old age 00 I Sappho 0 From late 7th century 0 Born on island of Lesbos 0 Most of her writing on papyrus 0 Romantic involvements with girls that she talks aboutfriends of Sappho and their romantic involvements more about to get the girls used to sexuality and emotional investment I More familiar and less traumatic for a young person if it is with someone with the same sex with whom they have more in common 0 Many children 0 Many of her poems are wedding songs I Pages 3435 Wedding hymns 0 Young girls part of Sappho s circle would learn to perform Sappho s wedding hymns for older women who were getting married I Desirable end that they should look forward to O Other type of poems Where she has to say goodbye to a girl I Sappho still loves the girlgirl still loves Sappho I Separation difficult For the Greeks same sex behavior was not a matter of sexual identity in the way that the modern day construes it 0 More a transition phase of life 0 Part of a young person s initiation into the world of adulthood I To be physically or emotionally intimate with an older person of the same sex I Mentorsrole models in addition to helping boys become comfortable with their own body 0 Preparation for marriage not in opposition of marriage Female initiation cults 0 To prepare girls for marriage Girls would marry in teenage years Cults connected to goddesses like Artemis and Aphrodite O O 0 Education to make them more desirable O
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