February 17th Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amalia Cristiano on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 21648 at San Diego State University taught by Hay in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 94 views.
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Date Created: 02/18/15
February 17 2015 Central Powers Austria Turkey Germany Triple Entente United States France Great Britain WWI no clear reason for fighting 10 million soldiers died destroyed an entire generation Lost generation 1917 two major events 1 Russian Revolution Russia taken over by revolutionary communists called Bolsheviks Took over in Russia advocated for supreme radical changes possible to abolish private property and create a relatively equal society Wanted this communist revolution to be international Communism now in power in one of the most powerful nations 2 United States joined WWI Triple Entente side Turned the tide of the war US Had enough supplies so that the Triple Entente would never run out Treaty of Versailles Fall of 1918 Germany s leaders realized they could not Win the war Asked for an armistice from Triple Entente Armistice not exactly a surrender A ceasefire agreement in Which a peace treaty is negotiated afterwards The peace treaty is the legal end to the war Armistice took effect on November 11 1918 Armistice Day or Veterans Day Immediately followed by a breakdown of German leaders Winter of 19181919 German Bolsheviks tried to bring communist revolution to Germany It was unsuccessful but prevented a strong government for months The Germans were not allowed to take part in the peace treaty anyway however Treaty was put together by the French British and US It was signed in the summer of 1919 Simply seemed to lay groundwork for another war Terms were too harsh EX Germany had to give up territory to other nations The worst condition of all was that Germany had to pay for the war in war reparations Which prevented the German economy from recovering Had to pay 40 of their total gross domestic product each year another major cause of the Depression By the summer of 1919 however Germany had a democratic government called the Weimar Republic Which lasted until 1933 Weimar Republic Traditional democracy First to give women the right to vote of all modern democracies A lot of Germans saw the leaders as November Criminals who betrayed Germany by accepting the terms from the Treaty of Versailles and pulling out of the war early as well as opening up Germany to communism Hitler s Early Life He was born in Austria on April 20th 1889 Came from a dysfunctional family father was 30 years older than mother and a drunk and violent Roman Catholic upbringing which prevented the possibility of divorce He was a weirdo and loner growing up considered himself to be an artist At 17 he moved to Vienna where he tried to pursue a career as an artist but he did not have much success as he did not even get accepted into art school He also began to talk about his dislike of the Jews and how they had wronged him In 1913 he moved to the German state of Bavaria and lived in Munich He wanted to avoid serving in the military for Austria because he did not want to fight for a multiethnic empire He enthusiastically joined the German army Was a good soldier who won two top medals for bravery although he was never promoted above corporal which was extremely unusual especially because so many men were dying Leaders did not see him as a leader of men When the war ended the army assigned him as a spy on political groups his job was to go to political party meetings in Munich One meeting was the German Workers Party Hitler ended up leaving the army and joining this party German Workers Party More of a club in the beginning Believed that the German working man had been betrayed by war profiteers or industrialists who kept the war going to make money Hated communists They were extreme nationalists who thought German race had a special destiny Hitler after joining learned he had special skills specifically his oratory skills Emerged as a leader of the party eventually making it clear he should be the only leader Also said the party needed a different name to not sound like communists Began to call themselves National Socialist German Workers Party NSDAP Called Nazis because of the German word for nationalism 1921 Hitler began to articulate Nazi beliefs more clearly 25 Points These were 25 of the main beliefs goals of the Nazi party Some important points 1 wanted to get rid of the Weimar Republic 2 Wanted all war profiteers punished 3 Wanted Germans to be ready to fight communism 4 The Jewish people can never be Germans Nazis tended to also view the Jews as war profiteers as well as the Bolsheviks Fascist Movement This movement began in Italy with Benito Mussolini Mussolini An extreme nationalist WWI veteran Believed democracy was too weak to restore national pride or stop communism Came to power in 1922 using methods Hitler would later learn from He formed paramilitary groups from his supporters who were called Blackshirts typically young men WWI veterans and rightwing The Blackshirts were sent into the streets to take direct action which sometimes resulted in violence Fascism used many military methods both in the streets and in higher levels of government To achieve national goals there was no tolerance of dissent All people should be ready to sacrifice for the national state Fascist dictators arose out of the working class and tended to view themselves as ordinary people Hitler learned the usefulness of direct action SAs Hitler formed his own type of Blackshirts called Brownshirts who were stormtrooper paramilitary groups Leader was Ernst Romm who was a highly respected German officer that gave the Nazis more respect and authority with the German people Began adopting their symbols like swastikas to direct power and decisiveness Nazis grew slowly during the 1920s In 1923 Hitler recruited Hermann Goering who helped give the Nazi Party some glamour Hermann Goering Famous in Germany WWI pilot one of Germany s first ying aces Thought to have moviestar good looks Became the 2 man in Nazi Germany and Hitler s designated successor 1923 Nazis made first attempt to seize power Beer Hall Putsch November 1923 Beer halls big indoor spaces in Munich where political party meetings were held Night of the Putsch a big political meeting at a beer hall with many high ranking officials in Germany Hitler surrounded the beer hall with Brownshirts and the Nazis seized control of the meeting tried to convince officials to join the Nazis Used General Erich von Ludendorff who was a famous and wellrespected official Hitler managed to recruit Munich s officials played along for a while but the plan ultimately failed and Hitler was arrested Put on trial in 1924 Trial began to make Hitler famous he acted his own defense and made political speeches Found guilty sentenced to prison Spent much of 1925 in jail Prison sentence was shortened and it was a fairly cushy prison term he could have visitors whenever he wanted and access to writing materials Wrote Mein Kampf which was published in 1925 Means My Struggle Mein Kampf Believed Germany needed another big war concentrated in Eastern Europe Also elaborated on Nazi ideology democracy a mistake most people meant to follow few people meant to lead Claimed it was perfectly ok to lie to the people to achieve goals especially if it made people comfortable Notion known as the Big Lie the more outlandish the lie the more likely to be believed Also blamed Jewish people for loss of WWI Germany s economic troubles and said that if some 15000 Jews had been gassed WWI could have been prevented Said once he was in power he would put in policies to control J ews never explicitly mentioned a plan to exterminate them Hitler was released from prison in 1925 and came to the realization that he had to take power legally Tried to expand Nazi movement Nazi Movement Expands New leaders emerged such as Joseph Goebbels Joseph Goebbels A media guy who used words and pictures to manipulate people Told Hitler he could get German people to believe anything Hitler wanted Used advertising in elections one of the first politicians to do so Considered one of the top 3 Nazis Heinrich Himmler In 1929 he was chosen to lead the SS the Nazi Party s elite guard Himmler had great ambitions wanted SS to be most powerful branch largely succeeded Holocaust was essentially an SS project 1930 Nazi Party was a legitimate political party not the biggest but respectable with about 10 of the vote Great Depression hit Germany in 1930 Great Depression Global economic collapse High unemployment rate about 34 in Germany No unemployment checks no welfare Germans began to look at democracy and capitalism as failures Many millions of Germans became communists or Nazis In the summer of 1932 another election held and Nazi Party became biggest single political party by winning the majority of Parliament 37 of the total vote 1932 Election Hitler argued he had a claim to become chancellor of Germany no direct election for this office either the head of the largest single political party with over 50 of the vote and only elected in local community Can only be chancellor if the total vote is under 50 if you form a coalition government proportional representation If chancellor is head of the government they are not the head of state the President is At the time the President was Paul von Hindenburg more of a figurehead position like the Queen of England Hitler had come in 2rld for the presidency to Hindenburg Hitler tried to put together a coalition to become chancellor but Hindenburg rejected it because he found Hitler to be lowclass and not someone meant to lead the government He finally allowed Hitler to become chancellor because Hindenburg was convinced that he could be controlled by more experienced people Hitler took office on January 30th 1933 Hitler Takes Power Less than a month later Reichstag Fire takes place Mysteriously burnt but clearly arson Hitler blamed fire on the communists and that it was a sign to begin a communist revolution He declared it a national emergency and gave himself special powers during this time Declared communism illegal held book burning sessions Attempted to intimidate those opposed to the Nazi movement In March 1933 Hitler passed the Enabling Act which gave him permanent dictatorship powers and make his own laws He could also act outside the Weimar Republic without fear of legal challenge Hitler announced the civil service acts which banned communists and J ewSocialists from holding any position in the government including schoolteachers and university professors This opened up a lot of jobs which were filled by Nazis Hitler opened the first concentration camp in April of 1933 which were special prisons for political opponents The concentration camps were opened by Himmler and the SS By the end of 1933 Nazi Party was the only party left others made illegal or disbanded In 1934 Hitler had 2 remaining obstacles 1 leftwing of the Nazi Party wanted to completely overturn German society thought Hitler was too willing to work with traditional German elites At the heart of this branch was Ernst Romm who wanted to turn the SA into the army 2 Regular German army they were not fully sold on Hitler Traditional honorable distrustful of Hitler too lowclass However Hitler made a deal with them called Pact of Deutschland The Deutschland was a ship that Hitler met the army on and made a deal with them Pact of Deutschland Hitler promised to control SA Promised military leaders he would expand the German military Asked generals to back him up with any major moves he would make Night of the Long Knives On June 30th 1934 Hitler murdered 100 of his political opponents including Ernst Romm Shocked the nation and the world Army backed him up saying it was necessary to save state from chaos Hindenburg was still president but he died shortly after in August of 1934 Following his death Hitler proclaimed democracy officially over he now had sole political authority Called himself Der Fuehrer leader Weimar Republic replaced by the Third Reich lasted 12 years Most Germans still not sold on Hitler
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