EEBio Week 7 Notes
EEBio Week 7 Notes Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 100
Popular in Introduction to Ecology and Behavior
Popular in Behavioral Sciences
This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Mayeda on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Ecology and Evolutionary Biology 100 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Johns in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Ecology and Behavior in Behavioral Sciences at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 02/18/15
Tuesday February 17 2015 EEBio Lect 13 Ecology and Behavior EEB 1OO Philip Johns philipjohns1uclaedu Genes amp learning Office hours philipjohns1uclaedu Tue HH 31611OO12OO Wed HH 32811OO12OO Fri HH 31611OO12OO Philip Johns Announcements Test graded compiling grades Extra credit video is due by 01 March Email me the youtube link Worth 0 5 or rarely 10 points total Testosterone and territorial behaviors Notice relation between level of T and duration of territorial behavior Costs of testosterone lmmunefunction lnterferencewithotherbehaviors Testosterone and guinea pig sexual behavior What does this suggest just bring to baseline adding lots of testosterone doesn t add a ton more sexual behavior Genes amp behavior Tuesday February 17 2015 DNA gt RNA gt PROTEINS gt BEHAVIORS Nature vs nurture not eitheror possibility DNA to proteins Eenvironment both probably influence Genotype amp phenotype Genotypethe set of genes or alleles an individual has at one or a suite of loci Phenotypeany characteristic of an individual tongue rollers dominant genes affect behavior Nature vs nurture historically huge debate Historically huge debate Better worded Genetic vs environmental influence on behaviors Why do people question genetic influences on behaviors Eugenics in 1970s after WWII racial concerns What are some ways we can determine genetic influences on behaviors study family trees twin studies Single genes of large effect Singlegene effects should produce Discrete phenotypes Mendelian ratios Sources of singlegene effects include Natural variantspolymorphisms Mutations caused by Xrays or other radiation can cause deletions or breaks in Tuesday February 17 2015 chromosomes Ethyl methane sulfate EMS can cause point mutations Can confirm with genetic manipulations Can map location to chromosome Example foraging gene in Drosophila Sitter don t move much just sit in petri dish amp Rover move a lot What ratio of offspring do we expect if we cross these lines if it s a gene of large effect which one is dominant F1 generation 100 have dominant trait Example foraging gene in Drosophila F1topalmost all Rovers F2bottom about a 13 ratio of SittersRovers lmplies Genes of large effect and learning some genes even affect learning Drosophila Dunce Cannot associate smells with negative stimulus shock Males unreceptive to a pheromone females use to signal not interested during courtship Amnesiac Tuesday February 17 2015 Learn and forget quickly about not interested pheromone respond for truncated period of time Knockouts amp phenotypes Remove or interrupt known exons Add a phenotypic markerso can tell it works Inject into embryonic stem cells Breed off spring that do not produce gene product Obtain homozygotes without gene product Correlate phenotype with knock out Also RNAi amp morpholinos for similar shortterm effects Vasopressin amp vole pair bonding Prairie volestoppair bond prairie voles are monogamous Meadow vole males polygynous polymanygyn females males have multi partners and don t huddle with partners like prairie voles Vasopressin amp vole pair bonding Prairie voles spend more time huddling with partner dark bar vs stranger Vasopressin receptor 1a in situ Knock out removes recognition of partner httpdevrickhansonnetwpcontentfilespapersOxytocinVasopressinReviewpdf Knockouts amp learning genotypes Mice without alphacalcium calmodulin kinase are less able to learn knock out of this kinase Tuesday February 17 2015 Most learning mutations are likely to be selected against in the wild httpwwwsciencemagorgcontent2575067201 Genes for behaviors Shorthand a change at this locus influences a behavior Many loci influence each behavior eg learning mutation at any locus could influence behavior Continuous traits and quantitative genetics Many traits not discrete have a range of values Continuous traits are also influenced by environmental effects Partition variation into genetic and environmental components Variance measure how much variance in a trait y axis frequency x axis is trait v is variance genetic and environmental variance how much of variance is due to genetics additive genetic variation is like intermediate dominance intermediate dominance AA Aa aa AA one average speed aa one average speed Aa another average speed in between AA and aa within locus intermediate dominance equal to additive genetic variation each time add an allele change additive genetic variation over genetic variation only fraction of genetic variation Tuesday February 17 2015 Quantitative genetics o Narrow sense heritabilityhquot2 hA2 slope of parental average and offspring average heritabiity is ratio of genetic vs environmental variation genetically determined have low heritability because everyone in population has them heritability is population measurement measure with parent and offspring narrow sense heritability only look at a portion of this genetic heritability Slopeh2 Gives us an easy way to measure heritability SlopeO gtslope1 Heritability is a population measure Common environment What if slopeO9does that necessarily mean 90 genetic Egmath skills parents and offspring probably have similar math skills depend on environment what education do they get probably close relationship but part of it is confounding variable of people who are good at math probably will send kids to learn math etc Why or why not Issue of common environment within population Parents provide both genes and environment to many organisms Confounding effect Cross fostering Tuesday February 17 2015 Move eggs between nestseg Still have problem with the yolk dentioaMZ twins reared apart in humans IQ and intelligence in humans big deal But notice The high heritability of educational achievement reflects many genetically influenced traits not just intelligence Published 2014 in PNAS wwwpnasorgcgidoi101073pnas140877711139 Grade performance 6075 heritable Artificial selection amp heritability We expect a response to artificial or natural selection Rresponse to selectionchange in average trait between generations Sselection differential difference between breeder s average value amp population average thAZS hquot2 RS Response to selection amp heritability RhA28 What if h2 lt1 trait for parents on x axis and offspring on y s is difference between ave of breeding parents and the rest of the population average of kids if everyone bred vs after selection Tuesday February 17 2015 o if r is 0 no heritability r shows how heritable a trait is Response to selection amp heritability Typically finding the actual value of hquot2 isn t the goal Typically trying to show that hquot2 is gt O moderately large how heritable is a trait Maze running in rats 1940 experiment by RC Tryon parenta generation how quickly learn how to go through maze dep on how often in a dead end if select for bright and dull rats get huge variation in a few generations Response to selection amp heritability Evolution is a genetic effect Artificial or natural selection on a trait produces response if trait is genetic So response to selection suggests heritable component mice wadding up cotton to keep offspring warm in nest vs mice that don39t strong heritable component Factors complicating heritability Age in marmot alarm cas Darkbarshquot2 Heritability measures increase as marmots age heritability highest in adults Tuesday February 17 2015 Common garden experiment Control for rearing environment Grow different strains in similar environment to see if differences maintained Possible outcomesbottom Where the spiders roam free Malpais in NM scrub grew over old lava Aggression and boldness fight over places to make webs Funnel web sheet web spider Agelenopsis aperta Attacks conspecifics aggression amp prey boldness quickly Chiricahua AZ Agelenopsis again But here in AZ Riparian environmentnot desert Spiders wait to attack preywait to attack intruders wet grassy lots of predators that eat spiders must wait to eat pretty to avoid getting ea ng often hide from intruders less bold and less aggressive think about response to selection Common garden aggression amp boldness Spiders from desertamp riparian environment Tuesday February 17 2015 Reared in laboratory Population differences in behavior persisted in common laboratory environment Differences between populations genetic What next crossbreed A side story about Agelenopsis Crosses between populations test by drop prey on webs either snatch up or leave there males have riparian female mothers are most aggressive look at graph Breeding analysis and song behavior Swordtail cricket Laupala Fastest speciation measured Partly due to song rate Breeding analysis and song behavior Notice classic genetic cross between natural variants But we ll use more modern molecular techniques to analyze Breeding analysis and song behavior QTL map Quantitative Trait Locus ticks are markers and horizontal bars are chromosomes look at graph Association between genetic markers amp trait lnfer genetic location amp genetic architecture Rapidly supplanted by describing genomes 1O Tuesday February 17 2015 gene affect song rate and female preference same gene affect male song and female preference that is why so closely related SNPs and genomic analysis Genetic markers associated with genetic differences Here differences between wolves and domestic dogs Overrepresentation of brainexpressed genes found httpmbeoxfordjournalsorgcontentearly20130604molbevmst088full higher lines show dogs more different from wolves where on dog genome we find significant differences between dogs and wolves 11 Thursday February 19 2015 Title Ecology and Behavior EEB 1OO Philip Johns philipjohns1uclaedu Foraging Office hours philipjohns1uclaedu Tue HH 31611OO12OO Wed HH 32811OO12OO Fri HH 31611OO12OO Philip Johns Announcements Test graded compiling grades Raw average 7O adjust by about 5 Extra credit video is due by 01 March Email me the youtube link Worth 0 5 or rarely 10 points total From last time innate or instinctual behaviors Abehaviorperformedproperlythefirsttimeitis needed lnnatebehaviorsarenot100geneticwhynot Learned behaviorsarenot1 OO oenvironmental why not Animalsmaybe programmed tolearnabout important things Animals and blank slates Tabula rasa blank slate the idea that individuals are born without mental content Extreme behaviorist view of the 50 s amp 60 s Animalcouldlearntodoanythingphysicallypossible Thursday February 19 2015 Ethologists amp innate behavior Somebehaviorslearnedsomeinnate Animalscapableoflearningsomethingsbetterthan others Constraints on learning Makes sense evolutionarily Rats can associate taste amp illness for up to 7 hours Learning and signals Tinbergen and Lorenz exposed different kind of na39ive poultry to different kinds of stimuli Hawk stimulus and goose stimulus varied by direction Learning and signals DdiscBbuzzardHhawkGgoose1OG10geese Poults responded more to hawksampdisosthan geese Classic experiment results reinterpreted httpwwwncbinlmnihgovpubmed21341 906 General signals that elicit alarm Eyes eye spots elicit alarm in birds and other animals lnnate human fears depending Heights Blood Deepwater Dark Thursday February 19 2015 Snakesspiderscentipedes ex is when police use black and yellow tape to keep people from going into certain places catch our attention and avoid Butnot Gunsdrugselectricityhigh speeds Decisions amp optimal foraging Logic Elements Preychoice Patchchoice Oystercatchers Forage for bivalves like mussels in the sand Oystercatchers feed on mussels Fairly even distribution of mussels in terms of size What if oyster catchers forage randomly graph of available oysters should look the same as the graph for oysters selected not so actively choosing certain sized oysters preference Oystercatchers feed on mussels What does this pattern suggest Preference amp behavioral decisions In general how do animals make these decisions Elements of optimality models Decision Thursday February 19 2015 Behavioral optionikepursue prey or not Currency Something that correlates with fitnessLRS Egnet energy intakerate of energy intake Assumptions amp constraints Simplify but capture essence of problem Intrinsic constraints limitations of animaability tolerance Extrinsic constraint environmental prey availability predators Logic Optimality models Natural selection favors behaviors that have higher fitness All else being equaNS should favor best behaviors Evolutionary economics costsvsbenefits Advantages Explicit assumptions Testable predictions Can suggest new hypotheses if data don t fit model Criticisms Behaviors might not be optimal Panglossian just so stories behaviors might not be optimal there is a certain assumption there Constraints Sea otters rafting Holding hands hold hands to not float away from each other Prey choice Thursday February 19 2015 Should sea otter eat sea urchin crab or both How much benefit and how much cost time needed to eat these things Aside sea otter teeth Otters Humans About twice as chip resistant as human teeth httpclassicrsblroyalsocietypublishingorgcontent101020140484short Decision Otter prey choice model Sea otter encounters prey Capture prey or continue looking Currency MaximizeET profitability highest rate of return Assumptions Prey encountered sequentially Search timefinding preyand holdinghandling time subduing eating processing prey are independent Sea otters have perfect knowledge prey density amp profitability Otter prey choice model Variables Energy from preyEi i crab or urchin Time required to handle prey hi Search time for prey Si Profitability Pi Eihi Currency Thursday February 19 2015 Ec 400 cal Eu 100 cal hc 2h hu 2 1h Then Pc 400 cal 2h 200 calh write these Pu 100 call 1h 100 calh Otter prey choice model When should an otter eat prey it comes across What should we consider Catch and eat current prey only if energy gained exceeds expected gain for search for new prey Ecurrenthcurrent gt EotherSother hother For crab Echcgt EuSu hu 4002 gt 100Su 1 For otters amp urchins when is this true always better to eat the crab Otter prey choice model Ecurrenthcurrent gt EotherSother hother is profitability of current prey item greater than that of the other For urchin Euhugt EcSc hc Algebra Sc gt EcEuhu hc When is this true Sc gt 400 call 100 ca1 h 2h Solve Sc gt 2h how dense quality prey item crab is will affect how long it takes to find it Thursday February 19 2015 depend on frequency of high quality prey item not frequency of low quality prey item don t waste time on low quality prey item if high quality available If finding a crab takes more than 2h otters should eat urchins Otter prey choice model Always eat more profitable prey E1h1gt E2h2 Include less profitable prey only if search time too long 81 gt E1E2h2 h1 Where E1 gt E2 Notice what s important Abundance of more profitable preyrelated to S1 Not abundance of less profitable prey Specialists on prey1 should become generalists quickly when prey1 becomes rare Testable prediction Prey choice model Which would you eat Activity Oyster catchers find two kinds of mussels large amp small Large1OO Caloriestakes 2 minutes to find and open only handling time poorly worded Small50 Caloriesstill takes 2 minutes to find and open At what point should oystercatchers eat each kind of mussel Eihi 1002 50 calmin Thursday February 19 2015 E2h2502 25 calmin Si gt when should oyster catchers eat small mussels Si gt 100 250 2 42 2 minutes if search time more than 2 min then should eat small mussels Trout and optimal diet Trout learn optimal diet learn about different sizes of different pellets Parus major and mealworms Here density influences search time S Qualitatively fit is good quantitatively a little off at higher density eat larger prey items Multiple prey choice Rank all prey by profitability E1h1 gt E2h2 gt E3h3 To decide whether or not to include a prey item when encountered its profitability must exceed the net profitability of all higher ranking prey E3h3 gtE1E2St h I S2 h2 Bluegills and optimal diet Bluegills and three sizes of daphnia prey Qualitativer a good fit quantitatively a little off Reasons for partial preferences Discrimination errormistake prey type Thursday February 19 2015 Lack of complete information Experiments with pigeons show that increasing experience with a particular combination of prey profitabilities and encounter rates results in step function decisions Variation in prey size Simultaneous encounters with multiple prey Short term sampling rule for estimating encounter rate Foraging among patches Greater doublecollared sunbird L European honeybee fly around until find a patch of flowers to forage when should they leave a patch of flowers Energy gain in a patch o What should this relationship look like Draw it Energy gain in a patch o What should this relationship look like Draw it VVhy Patch choice model Decision When is the optimal time to leave a patch o slope of the line is gain in energy over time which line is steepest Examples hummingbird or bee visiting flowers Thursday February 19 2015 o Currency maximize profitability ET does travel time between patches affect how long it should stay in a patch AssumptionsampConstraints Time spent searching in patches and traveling between patches are independent Foragers encounter patches sequentially Perfect knowledge ie energy gain in a patch and patch locations are known Energy gain in patches shows diminishing return Energy gain in a patch Howlongshouldaforagerstayinapatch Canwemodifythistomakeagraphicalmodel Patch choice solution marginal value theorem Foraging time Within patch B Travel time Between patches Slope of line is GainTimeET Patch choice solution marginal value theorem Slope of line is steepest at tangent optimal time in patchTopt Patch choice predictions Long travel time Topt for Long travel time Patch choice predictions To pt for Short travel time Optimal time in patch is greater when travel time between patches is longer 10 Thursday February 19 2015 Patch residence Parus major Mealworms hidden in sawdust in pots hanging from trees Two experimental conditions long and short travel time achieved by making lids easy or hard to remove Actual patch residence times were close to predictions of MVT Blue whales o Can we apply similar thinking to something bigger Activity blue whales time to find prey is from surface of water all the way down to krill during which whale must hold breath Target depth where the food is What does this suggest What else do we need to know time in a patch in first graph time traveling to patch in last graph are they actually eating it takes longer to dive deeper whales spend ore time at bottom where food is httpbehecooxfordjournalsorgcontent 224880abstract What if optimality fails Considersimplerdecisionrules lncludeadditionalconstraints 11 Thursday February 19 2015 Predation risk Minimum nutrient requirements Avoidance of toxins Considercurrencyotherthanprofitability Efficiency EgainedEspent Constraints prey choice vs predation Constraints minimum nutrient uptake Moose feed Onforestleaves Onaquaticplants Moose have Minimumenergyandsodium requirements Butlimitedstomachcapacity Forest food is Highenergy Butlowsodium Aquatic plants are Lowenergy Sodiumrich Constraints minimum nutrient uptake Enoughfood Enoughsodium Canonlyeatsomuch Constraints minimum nutrient uptake Moose maximizing energy intake given constraints Constraints toxin avoidance Scarlet macaws eat clay after consuming fruit with tannins or alkaloids 12 Thursday February 19 2015 Alternative currencies Nectarloadthatbees can carry shows diminishing returns because larger loads take more energy Datafitefficiency maximization Egained Espent not profitability Selectiononhiverather than worker favors efficiency 13
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