Psych119F Wk7 Notes
Psych119F Wk7 Notes Psychology 119F
Popular in Neural Basis of Behavior
Popular in Psychlogy
This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Mayeda on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 119F at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Blair in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 134 views. For similar materials see Neural Basis of Behavior in Psychlogy at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 02/18/15
Recording multiple HD cells lpos m ll 1 c ADn Peyrache et al 2015 recorded multiple HD m cells simultaneously 9 from the anterodorsal thalamus ADn and postsubiculum P08 ADn a 39 a l 3 Iz ggg 33 Mind Reading Population Decoding When many HD cells are simultaneously recorded it becomes possible to decode their spike trains to reconstruct the rat s directional heading in real time This is like reading the rat s mind to see what direction it THINKS it is facing take spike trains of neurons and run through algorithm to estimate what direction animal is facing based off of neurons that are firing 360 Actual HD 360 econstructed HD 1 AD J FA 4 quot x A PoS I 39 V J I II II I 39 II II I 39 F39Im39l39 39l 39 I II II I I f 39 9 quotFl l quot39 39quot 394 III I I III I39ll III quotphl I 1 lllllquotl H I quotIquot quotm d H J IIIh W39LI 3939 qrq 39 I 39 I I II in I I Id In 39 d III 39 1 I I I 39F I x quot39 IIII3939I 39139 I 1 q I39 quotNilquot I quot quotr39 rdm quotquotquot quot P39IIquot mun 39I 1 l l 10 8 P08 39 IllaJ 439 ADn A rat dreams of turning can see what rat is dreaming about Awake Sleep Sleep during REM brain activity similar to wakefulness I l I l V i can see animal thinking of turning itself around 360quot Actual HD stops changing during m sleep because the rat s head is 360quot Still Reconstructed HD during REM on m looks like wakingrat is to 39 quot 3939quot39quotquotquotquotquott3939i39 i quot3quotquot 11quot 1 iaxw39ir39t39iwquot 39quotquot39 39 1 s 39M39 dreaming CE 13quot rquot 1 WW 1 I Ists lgHEL39m 39g39ng Raster plots show spike activity u Hm g gt during wake versus sleepwhat 5 39 IIIlS39f39 lmll 39l quot39 is going on during the SWS lt Mquotquot39 quot quot39 ll139llli3939t ifi39T f 3939 II quotL39lL3939 quotquot214 State g compressed replay patterns of activity 105 t 39 f 39 similar to real life but very compressed i SW3 REM During Slow Wave Sleep SWS l39 39 I I I I 391 I 3939 Mlquot 39 1 whim the reconstructed HD signal CL 139 39 39 l quot I I ll H I quotpf Ih39 quotHquot IHIu39ll39uh39u39 appears to generate very rapid 1 39 H ml m39 head turns that are highly 360quot Tha39amic Signa39 compressed in time about 10x W M faster than normal head 0 I turning 1 39 39J39 I Will I I quot m I 39 u 39l 39 Imll F c 1 I quot39Tl39l39il39 m H 139 39llili39llll39l39ll39Wu 39II39I I n39I During Rapid Eye Movement 2 151a 39 39 I I 1 I i Itquotlluuu REM sleep the reconstructed l at I I dblll 39 n m um u 39n u3 head turns occur at normal 250 ms 25 s waking Speed 2014 Nobel Prize for Physiology amp Medicine John Edvard MayBritt O Keefe Moser Moser brain s GPS system helped to understand the neural circuits that underly long term memory storage Stages of Memory Formation working memory High ICOI11C memory 8 3 Shortterm memory 4quot I H I 2 Intermedlateterm Eb S CD 3 an Low Henry Molaison 19262008 suffered frmere I surgically rempp main strucLuIie f r 39rTTwh at F come from quot 39 The human hippocampus The hippocampus seahorse was given its name by Bolognese anatomist Giulio Cesare Aranzi circa 1564 I mm Brainc omzection com Iv Hamish Lamarg Lupin101quot Hippoeampus amp Memory Modern studies of the hippoeampal role in memory began With studies of the famous neurological patient HM Large portions of HM s medial temporal lobe were reseeted to treat his severe intractable epilepsy HM have amnesia as result Seoville and Milner 1957 studied HM s resulting memory loss MRI scan of quotHMquot NOTE THE RESULTS OF HIS BILRTERRL MEDIHL TEMPORHL LOBE RESEOTION 9ND THE REMOURL OF THE HIPPOORMPUS William Sooville Brenda Milner HM HM s Memory Impairment 0 HM exhibited severe anterograde amnesia for almost all declarative memories of facts and episodes that he encountered after his operation anterograde is after surgery 0 HM also exhibited temporallygraded retrograde amnesia he showed better memory for declarative information acquired long before surgery than recently before surgery declarative memory are things you can recall and convey to someone through language eg not how to ride a bike 0 Procedural learning e g motor skill learning was found to be normal in HM Animals models Do animals have declarative memory Without language they cannot declare anything And yet all mammals have a clearly identi able hippocampus With very similar anatomical structure to humans So What do animals use their hippocampus for Early attempts at nding hippocampal memory impairments in rodents were not successful but it gradually became clear that rodents use their hippocampus to store memories of familiar environments hard to nd model for declaratwe memory Chronic neurophysiological recordings To further investigate the role of the hippocampus in learning and memory researchers began implanting electrodes into the hippocampus of freely behaving rats Before describing What they found it is useful to rst review the circuit anatomy of the hippocampus and discuss some of the different methods that can be used to record neural activity in freely behaving animals The rodent hippocampus The two hemispheres of the rat hippocampus resemble a pair of bananas joined at their stalks In rats the hippocampus occupies a larger proportion of the total brain volume than in humans mainly because rats have a much smaller cerebral cortex mm Bra m Connection mm I39l quot murals 14mm k 39IJtI39JHI The rodent hippocampus ll Atranverse cross 5 k m through the hf hippocampus slicing Jl 3 a the banana reveals a highly organized a circuit commonly 3 391 referred to as the 39 9 jf trisynaptic loop w 11 C A l The circuit architecture of the hippocampus was rst sketched by the Spanish neuroanatomist Ramon y Caj al d V quotquot I f Juro s hv 1133 wquot l u ram 35 139 egv39di l s quot I quot 5 44 I y 3395 39 39 O 39 if muff v1quot quot r 394 to o 39 O 1 I a 390 quot quot 39 Q In transverse section the hippocampal circuit consists of two layers of cell bodies that form interlocking C s they look like a sweet roll One of the cell layers is called the dentate gyrus DG and the other is called Cornus Ammonu which mean s Ammon s Horn in Latin abbreviated CA Two major subdivisions of the CA region are CA3 and CA1 dentate gyrus has dentate granule cells o quot Pyramidal Cells bubiculum 2253 Pyramidal Ingmar 39 39 v 39 a 1 p 39 nn 39 39 0 r c 11 39 39v F S N ea 9 a 39 Medial quot1 f Granule 39 quot Entorhinal Pyramldal 397 Cells Cortex Cells 39 CA3 pp The principle cell populations of the hippocampal are excitatory glutamatergic neurons that send their axons to neurons in other parts of the hippocampal circuit basic hippocampus circuit is highly conserved across species must serve important role trisynaptic loop three synapses bolded arrows below CA1 Pyramidal Cells bubiculum Pyramidal Cells Schaeffer Collaterals Mossy 39 Dentate MGd al CA3 Fibers Granule Entorhinal P ramidal yceus Cells Cortex Perforant Path J The classical trisynaptic loop circuit bold arrows consists of 1 the perforant path projection from medial entorhinal cortex to the dentate gyrus granule cells 2 mossy fiber projection from dentate granule cells to CA3 pyramidal neurons 3 Schaffer collateral projections from CA3 to CA1 pyramidal cells Output from CA1 is relayed back to entorhinal cortex via Subiculum to close the low CA3 cells excite themselves looped blue arrow below Schaeffer Collaterals CA1 Pyramidal Cells Subiculum Pyramidal T Cells Mossy Temporoammonal Dentate Medial CA3 Fibers Granule pathway a Entorhinal P ramidal yCeuS Cells 39 Cortex 39quot J Perforant Path Additional pathways include 1 perforant path projection from entorhinal cortex to CA3 2 temporoammonal projection from entorhinal cortex to CA1 3 excitatory recurrent collaterals from CA3 neurons onto themselves Field EEG recordings A large lowimpedance electroencephalographic EEG electrode can record eld potentials generated by concerted electrical activity crowd noise from hundreds or thousands of neurons large wire record electrical activi field potentials are measuring electric fields around neurons crowd noise similar to crowd of neurons creating lots of activity to record Field EEG recordings Recording eld potentials is a little bit like recording the crowd noise at football game by hanging a microphone from a blimp t PJsr Hal 0quotl l 1 Jv39i quotla 39IUJSA 39I i MIN if 39 v uvih 1quotquot yi hl39li illt39 mov mEnt movement I i I I f i I I 2 wwh j or j Ii10x v Jl ctquot 79 quot1A u uh oiic quot39Iquot JIL 4n 22 mch jump I v t l O 395 quot3 39 3939 0 wt 39quot r l r 1 3 39 l Jquot3939 v I I I 39 4 l 39 quot 39rquotquot39vvil placed In box 11 incmump 39 r 39i Iquot 4 l lhww m r39w 39w Wwquot39MHu wa Jquotit V I W H39HlI39 39 3 quot Jvu39539leJ IquotHquot H39M vw WCKeU Up placed In water 39 318nm chmb Out i i 39 f 39 39 s I 39 39 I 0 a 39 p39 I i 0 s I 39A a r 39 no I 39 5 I 1Tquotk1 I quoth T ii 39 39 v o 39 I r I Slltlng sml teeth chatter head turn Sumng Still 1 it 1 quot35 Lii39r39lli39i quot H a M l 6 ivva i 39453993 quot quotfr quotMEL 3 VI sleep 1 350 mV I 7 alwwwlil tmmwLNJLW MW sleep penml last Rec EEG in recordings in freely behaving rats Vanderwolf 1969 placed an EEG recording electrode into the CA region of the hippocampus and recorded spontaneous activity in freely behaving rats He observed that there were several distinct patterns of crowd activity in the hippocampus and each type of activity accompanied a different kind of behavior Theta rhythm and Sharp Waves Theta rhythm is a 68 Hz oscillation that occurs during voluntary movement such as When the rat is navigating through its environment tend to occur when walking around not still lll l w39lc Wlalwml quotlwl mll l quot ju lw39 i 39 v39l lililuql qh 1 mwwmvictimllquot movement moveman I i I J J i r I o 39 2 Wrw 39rq R39 39 39J v k nquotlquotl quot3quot 139quot lquot39 0 0quotquot quot l39t 4 3922 inch lump I a v x 39WK v 11 inch jump IJII 0 quot i 39 3 quotJ1b39 39vquot 39 39 0quotquot I h placed In box ll PHH ali39r 39x quotdtu39H n39wquotMquot H Jil ltlili39il 4 NWVL r lit ul f u ll lw l39nquotquot39 i 39 u39h39llllimpllll ww placed m water 39 Climb Oul theta rhythm is synchronized oscillation one of the patterns of activity picked up 3 wun 39 Sharp wave ripples SWRs are synchronous bursts of activity that occur mainly during quiet wakefulness when theta is absent swrs occur during slow wave sleep when still or quietly awake 1 H4210 10kHz 500 H7 to 10 kHz 2 l 100 ID 400 HI 3 4 w 1 to 50 Hz 100 ms I Singleunit recording 39 Small highimpedance microwire electrodes can snuggle up next to individual neurons and record their action potentials i M 39l 9 at k U B l i ggmug a illiiw p llgi39l392 n lgl I Chronic SingleUnit Recording Neurons Firing Action Potentials P lace cells O Keefe amp Dostrovsky 1971 discovered that many hippocampal neurons are place cells that re only when the rat visits a speci location in the environment the place eld g This path plot shows an overhead view of a square boX The squiggly gray line shows the path that a rat followed as it wandered around in the box The black dots show all locations where action potentials were red by a single hippocampal place cell dark spots are showing high firing place field of cell This ring rate map shows the average ring rate of the same cell at each location in the box Darker colors indicate higher ring rates The cell s place eld is clearly visible as a dark area of high ring Spatial Population Vector Different place cells each have their own preferred ring location place eld so the set of all place cells can store a population vector code for the rat s spatial location shows where cells like to fire place cells don t have actual topographic organization of place cells artificially place in small boxes below Slmultaneous recordan of 30 dlfferent place cells from the I same rat shows that each has its own place field in the box 39 D quot I Q C 39I39 a tu a 0 39 39 Place cells are excitatory pyramidal neurons in layers CA1 and CA3 Each cell s place field tends to remain stable across repeated visits to the same environment This is appears to be form of longterm memory for spatial locations because the place cell recognizes when the animal visits a familiar location in space D16 U 5 1 D18 D19 D20 021 U N 00 Firing rate maps are often plotted as colored heat maps with hot colors indicating areas of high ring and cool color indicating areas of low ring Lever et al 2002 allowed rats to forage freely for food pellets in a circular arena the rats foraged for 20 minutes a day every day for two weeks The ring rate maps at left show the activity of a single place cell that was recorded from CA3 on consecutive days days 1623 39 Notice that the place cell res at exactly the same location every day this cell seems to store a kind of memory that may allow the rat to recognize this speci c familiar location cells have constant place preference this is a kind of memory recognize familiar places this is a form of declarative memory Lever et al 2002 Nature 41690 Even distribution of eld centers In a cylindrical chamber place cells can exhibit ring elds that are against walls in the middle of the oor etc During freeforaging place cells are randomly distributed throughout the environment goal locations are preferentially Preferred ring locations ARE NOT topographically organized IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I m I I I I I I ll I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I m I IE I39 IIIIIlIIlIIII IIIIIllI I II I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I n I m m I m I In uence of visual landmarks When prominent familiar landmarks are moved place cell ring elds often move along with the landmarks 0 For example When a cue card is rotated in a circular arena place cells move with the cue card similar idea to manipulating head direction cells Removal of the cue card often does not disrupt place elds LIGHT DARK LIGHT Place cells can maintain their ring elds in complete darkness The Hippoeampus as a Cognitive Map John O Keefe amp Lynn Nadel 1978 Hypothesis The hippoeampus stores mental maps of spatial environments these are literally stored memories A 2D attractor network instead of having circle of neurons for activity bump have conceptualized sheet of place The populatmn Of place cells activity bump shifts through sheet in ceus can be a correspondence to rat movement through conceptualized as a sheetenvimnment of neurons We can imagine a bump of activity that shifts across the sheet in correspondence 39 39 39 39 with the rat s movements through the environment Could this sheet of place cells perform linear or translational path integration in much the same way that the ring attractor performs angular path integration
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