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HSTAA 212 Week 3 Notes

by: Nicole Goodfliesh

HSTAA 212 Week 3 Notes Hstaa 212

Marketplace > University of Washington > History > Hstaa 212 > HSTAA 212 Week 3 Notes
Nicole Goodfliesh
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About this Document

These notes cover everything in lectures 5 and 6 (week 3).
Military History of the United States
Nathan Roberts
Class Notes
history, UW, HSTAA, HSTAA212, military, militaryhistory, nathan
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Goodfliesh on Tuesday April 19, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hstaa 212 at University of Washington taught by Nathan Roberts in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Military History of the United States in History at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 04/19/16
M  4/11/2016       WEEK  3   Lecture  #5     Part  1:  The  Politics  of  Establishing  a  Military;  Reconciling  Liberty  with  Military  Effectiveness     Key  Terms   •   Republicans  vs  Federalists   •   Coastal  Defense   •   St.  Clair’s  Defeat   •   Frontier  constabulary   •   2  and  3  Amendments   •   Quasi  war  with  France   •   Uniform  Militia  Act   •   Calling  Forth  Act   •   Newburgh  Conspiracy   •   Continental  Army  pensions   •   American  anti-­‐war  tradition   •   Professionalization     Key  Places   •   Tripoli   •   Veracruz     Key  Concepts   •   Military  as  a  political/  Constitutional  issue   •   Origins  of  a  US  military  and  transformation  of  dual-­‐army  tradition     Uniform  Militia  Act  (1792)-­‐  Not  what  Washington  Wanted   •   Washington’s  Idea  was  that  the  militia  needed  to  have  common  uniforms  and  weapons,   and  such   •   New  England  militias  had  always  been  stronger   o   Better  organized,  better  supplied   o   Puritan  society     •   Southern  militias  were  hit  and  miss  (true  until  civil  war)   •   The  act  ended  up  doing  very  little   o   Not  a  set  of  strong  standards   o   Laid  out  strong  standards,  but  left  it  up  to  the  state  if  they  wanted  to  adopt  or   not       The  Legion  of  the  United  States   •   Dual  Policy:  Treaties  and  a  new  army  (depended  on  treaties  but  used  army  as  back  up)   o   One  hand:  there  is  a  Legion  of  US,  other  hand:  each  state  has  own  militia   §   Legion  of  the  United  States   •   Anthony  Wane  was  first  Leader   •   5280  men  and  officers   •   Battle  of  Fallen  Timbers  (1794)   o   Lots  of  trees  down  from  a  storm   o   LOUS  was  victorious;  finally  shines;  able  to  execute   dominance  in  the  West   o   Faced  about  500  Native  Americans   o   Important  for  Indians:  when  they  left  the  battle  they  went   to  find  safe  haven  in  the  British  Forts  and  they  turned   them  down   o   Made  treaties  with  Native  Americans  as  if  they  were  foreign  nations   o   Congress  has  some  powers,  President  has  some  powers     The  Politics  of  Forming  a  Military:  Frontier  Constabulary   •   Out  on  Western  Frontier   •   Established  to  keep  the  peace   •   LOUS  was  part  of  this   •   Most  people  did  not  want  to  serve  here   o   Bad  food   o   Bad  medicine   o   Awful  discipline;  poorly  trained;  recent  immigrants-­‐  needed  something  to  do   o   Necessary  for  Republicans  and  Federalists,  but  not  a  desirable  duty     Whiskey  Rebellion  (1791:  Western  PA)   •   Imagine  this  being  mirrored  in  several  other  states,  about  the  same  time  period   •   Congress  started  raising  taxes  and  the  farmers  in  that  area  don’t  like  it;  largely  a   federalist  government  and  a  republican  controlled  area   •   Congress  can’t  use  LOUS  because  out  in  the  west,  so  Calling  Forth  Act   •   For  the  first  time,  President  calls  several  different  militias   •   The  civilians  backed  down  when  the  militiamen  came     Calling  Forth  Act  (1792)   •   Allows  president  to  call  up  the  militia   o   Congress  delegated  that  authority  to  the  President   •   They  all  responded  and  they  sent  thousands  of  militiamen     1794  Navy   •   Republican  vs  Federalists   •   New  coastal  forts,  arsenals   •   Six  frigates  (Federalists)   o   Big  ships  to  deal  with  other  Navies   o   Republicans  didn’t  want  to  pay  for  it   §   Thought  it  was  inviting  a  war     1798-­‐1800  Federalists  and  the  Quasi  Wat  with  France:  Marine  Corps,  Six  74-­‐gun  ships,  Larger   “New  Army”   •   Makes  an  Anglo-­‐  American  Treaty   o   Gives  English  most  favored  nation  trading  status   o   Upsets  the  French:  Americans  are  growing  closely  with  British   §   Seize  American  ships   §   French  demand  a  huge  bribe  when  they  talked  about  diplomacy  and  that   upset  the  Americans,  and  started  the  Quasi  War  with  France   •   Scared  a  lot  of  Americans   o   Started  to  get  behind  idea  of  a  big,  robust  military   o   Congress  created  the  Marine  Corps   §   Within  Department  of  Navy   §   Allowed  for  the  building  of  the  74-­‐gun  ships  and  a   bigger  army   o   Federalist  stronghold  is  NE,  NE  is  aligned  with  Britain     Passive  Military  Approach  (C.  1800)   •   Jefferson   o   Republicans  looked  west  for  Trade,  Land,  Diplomacy   o   Federalists  looked  at  East   o   Reduce  national  debt;  spend  less  money   §   If  you  were  in  debt,  you  were  not  free   o   Non-­‐involvement,  defensive   §   Reduced  military   §   A  few  frigates,  small  army,  militia,  forts   §   Gunboats   •   Military  Peace  Establishment  Act  (1802)   o   Tried  to  create  peace  b/w  federalists  and  republicans  about  the  future  of  the   military   §   Corps  of  Engineers   §   West  Point     1801-­‐1805  Tripoli:  Pirates  and  Gunboats   •   Pirates  in  Tripoli  effectively  used  gunboats   o   Shallow  draft;  fast;  armored  up  to  medium  army;  good  at  patrolling  waterway   §   Jefferson  liked  this  idea  and  brought  the  idea  of  gunboats  to  the  US   •   War  with  Tripoli   o   Americans  had  already  been  paying  bribes  to  the  pirates/  privateers  of  Tripoli;   raiding  US  shipsà  US  navy  was  sent  to  deal  with  it     West  Point  1802     •   Comes  on  the  heels  of  the  changes  to  the  military   •   In  New  York     1803-­‐1815  Napoleonic  Wars     •   In  Europe:  what  happens  in  Europe  affects  the  US  for  the  next  several  decades-­‐  Eruption   of  the  Napoleonic  Wars   •   Let  loose  the  Tyrant,  Napoleon,  who  went  to  conquer  Europe   •   His  tactics  shape  US  tactics  at  least  through  the  end  of  the  civil  war       C.  1805  British  Pressing  US  Sailors  into  Service   •   One  of  the  first  things  that  come  out  of  the  Napoleonic  Wars,  is  another  battle  in  the   Atlantic   •   British  and  French  navies  battling  each  other  on  big  ships   o   In  order  to  fill  the  ships,  British  press  US  sailors  into  their  service  to  serve  on   British  ships   •   HMS  Leopard  stopped  the  USS  Chesapeake,  boarded  the  ship,  said  that  it  was  looking   for  British  deservers,  but  also  took  some  US  sailors  and  pressed  them  into  service,  even   though  the  US  and  Britain  had  a  treatyà  begins  the  animosities  that  lead  to  the  War  of   1812     War  of  1812   •   US  Navy   o   US  had  small  navy:  16  total  warships;  7  frigates  (big  ships)à    3  heavy:  the  US,   Constitution,  President   §   1300  privateers  by  1815   o   Royal  Navy:  600  warships  (globally)   o   Madison’s  reluctanceà  Madison  didn’t  want  to  fight  this  war,  unpopular  war   o   Against  republican  values:  means  a  bigger  navy,  more  ships,  more  taxes   o   Rarely  have  countries  go  to  war  so  reluctantly   o   War  about  trade;  US  government  hasn’t  solidified  ideas  about  foreign  policy;  lots   of  ambiguous  causes     USS  Constitution   •   Big  ships  had  a  lot  of  successes  early  on     In  the  Atlantic:  USS  United  States  V  HMS  Macedonian   •   Congress  said  no  more  one  on  one  ship  battles  early  in  the  war     The  West   •   British  forts  out  there   •   Tecumseh   o   Native  man  who  was  a  political  leader   o   His  brother  was  called  the  prophet;  moved  around  to  native  groups  talking  about   importance  of  Indian  Confederacy   §   Seeing  the  racial  division:  Indians  Vs.  Whites   •   Native  alliance,  supplied  by  Britain   •   Wm.  Henry  Harrison  and  the  Battle  of  Tippecanoe  (1811)   o   Finally,  the  US  is  successful  at  defeating  the  Indian  Alliance   o   Tecumseh  is  killed  and  alliance  breaks  down     War  of  1812   •   Four  uncontrolled  theaters   •   Perry  on  Lake  Erie   o   “Met  the  enemy  and  they  are  ours”  à  turned  around  in  1960s  “we  met  the   enemy  and  they  are  us”   •   US  suffers  series  of  losses   o   Massacred  by  Indians  at  ft.  Deerford   •   Battle  of  Thames   •   Naval  engagements   •   Andrew  Jackson  in  the  South   o   Fighting  the  Creeks  Indians  in  New  Orleans     §   Internal  civil  war  among  Creek  Nation  and  Jackson  exploited  that  civil  war   using  some  Creeks  as  allies   o   Hates  Indians   •   Toward  end  of  war  185  (wen  Nap  is  finally  defeated  in  Europe)  it  looks  bad  for  America   because  since  England  is  done  with  France,  they  can  turn  all  their  attention  to  America     Treaty  of  Ghent   •   Americans  Embraced  myth  of  defeating  Britain   o   Stood  toe  to  toe  with  Britishà  but  in  reality,  they  lost  as  many  battles  as  they   won   •   Last  European-­‐  American  War  for  a  century   •   US  looked  inward     Summary  1785-­‐1815   •   Military,  a  political  battlefield   o   Early  parts  of  developing  military  for  constitution  is  highly  political   •   Money  and  region   o   Very  divided  over  money,  debt  and,  taxes:  linkage  to  freedom  and  liberty   •   War  of  1812  ended  American-­‐  European  Conflicts         Part  2:  Professionalization:  Theory  and  Practice     Context:  1815-­‐1845   •   The  market  and  Industrial  revolutions   •   Professionalization  of  the  military   •   Military  acquiring  territory  and  aiding  capitalist  development   •   Sense  of  capitalismà  new  technology   •   Manifest  Destiny:  Racism,  Providence,  and  Territorial  Expansion   o   1830s-­‐40s   o   Hardening  ideas  about  race/racism   o   Further  belief  that  God  is  directly  involved  and  interested  in  seeing  America   succeed     Post  1815  Nationalism   •   12,000-­‐man  peacetime  army   •   Professionalization   o   Classes  going  into  West  Point   •   West  Point  and  Annapolis  (US  Naval  Academy)     •   General  Staff   o   Officers  in  the  US  Military:  Quartermaster,  inspector,  adjutant,  etc.   o   Who  is  in  command?   §   Generals  in  the  field?  President?  Who?     Napoleon’s  Influence   •   Schools  and  Philosophies   o   Prussian  Kriegsakademie   o   Clausewitz,  On  War  (1831)   §   Stressed  need  for  decisive  battle   §   Getting  your  enemy  to  come  fight  you   o   Jomini,  The  Art  of  War  (1838)   §   Stressed  need  for  logistics  and  intelligence     Napoleonic  Tactics   •   Massed  troops  and  massed  fire   o   Moved  troops  quickly  and  massed  fireà  drove  other  army  before  them   •   Decisive  battle   o   Not  hardships  on  civilians,  or  destroying  their  crops,  but  decisive  battle   •   Mobility   o   Ability  to  move  army  quickly  and  get  good  positions  à  on  the  high  ground   •   Infantry,  cavalry,  artillery   •   Bayonet  Charges   •   High-­‐Intensity  warfare  and  the  American  Context     1820-­‐40  USS  Navy:  USS  Dale   •   Move  away  from  big  ships  (Frigates)  and  relied  more  on  small,  maneuverable,  faster,   cheaper  to  build  ships     o   Wanted  to  keep  up  with  and  defend  merchant  fleets       Annapolis  (1845)   •   Navy  officers  are  trained  here  (naval  academy)       Industrial  Revolution   •   Technical  changes  with  professional  changes   •   Lots  of  new  things  being  developed   o   Percussion  caps,  mercury  fulminate  (instead  of  using  powder  in  the  rifles)   o   Cylindro-­‐conoidal  bullets  (Claude  E.  Minie)   o   Rifled  Bore  muskets   o   Breech  loading  and  repeating  rifles  (by  end  of  civil  war)  (don’t  have  to  reload   each  time)     US  Military  Looking  West   •   Railroads,  canals,  telegraph  lines,  etc.  being  build  to  get  people  out  to  the  west  and   exploit  the  resources  of  the  West   •   Miners,  Cow  herders,  timbermen,  farmers  are  all  out  there  to  turn  the  west  into   capitalist  enterpriseà  getting  into  conflicts  with  Indians   •   Soldiers’  experiences   o   No  glory,  manual  labor   §   Dig  your  own  fort  and  ditches  à  Lots  of  construction   o   Lots  of  Suicide   o   Little  chance  for  promotion   o   Poor  conditions   o   Low  Morale                       W  4/13/2016     Week  3   Lecture  #6     Part  3  (continued  from  last  lecture):  National  Expansion  and  Manifest  Destiny     Key  Terms   •   Manifest  Destiny   •   Indian  Removal   •   Second  Seminole  War   •   War  with  Mexico   •   Filibusters   •   Napoleonic  Tactics     Key  Places   •   Veracruz   •   Nicaragua     Monroe  Doctrine  (1823)  3  Principles   •   1.  The  US  will  oppose  any  new  colonial  interventions  in  the  Americas  (esp.  France  and   Russia)   •   2.  US  will  abstain  from  European  wars   •   3.  To  S/B/F/P:  Do  not  interfere  with  development  of  Latin  American  nations!   •   Independence:  people  should  be  able  to  determine  their  own  force       National  Expansion   •   Implications  for  the  Western  Hemisphere   •   Attitudes  toward  Europe   o   They  need  to  stay  on  their  side   •   What  about  continental  N  America?   o   Protectorate  of  the  West     o   A  lot  of  native  territory   o   Largely  Mexico   o   Indians     Manifest  Destiny   •   "…our  manifest  destiny  to  overspread  the  continent  allotted  by  Providence  for  the  free   development  of  our  yearly  multiplying  millions.”  –  1845  John  O’Sullivan  or  Jane  Cazneau   •   God  has  ordained  us  for  Americans  to  fill  up  the  continent     Territorial  Expansion   •   Army  to  fight  Indians,  chart  territory,  build  roads   •   Navy  to  map  coastlines   o   Wilkes  Expedition  1841   §   Map  out  the  borders  of  the  Puget  Sound     Indian  Removal   •   Indian  Removal  Act  1830   o   Andrew  Jackson  (first  2  term  president  in  a  long  time)  à  famous  Indian  Hater   from  the  South   o   5  civilized  tribes:  creeks,  Choctaw,  Chickasaws,  Cherokee  and  Seminoles  were   being  moved  to  the  newly  established  territories  (reservations)   §   Trail  of  tears  1838-­‐39  Cherokee  moving  to  Indian  Territory  in  a  harsh   winter;  many  people  died  on  the  way   §   The  Seminoles  in  FL  decided  to  stay  and  fight   §   US  Army  had  to  deal  with  the  native  people  (escort  them),  and  they  were   not  happy  with  it  and  didn’t  want  to  do  it   o   There  was  land  that  whites  couldn’t  take  because  of  the  treaties  with  the  Native   Americans  but  during  Jackson’s  presidency,  congress  worked  on  the  Indian   removal  act  which  allowed  the  fed  government  to  renegotiate  with  Indians  over   lands  that  had  previously  been  held  with  Treaties   §   In  Georgia,  settlers  went  onto  land  and  squatted  there  on  Cherokee  lands   and  the  Cherokee  asked  the  state  of  Georgia  to  do  something  about  it,   but  they  wouldn’t,  so  the  case  went  to  Federal  Supreme  Court…     •   Worcester  v.  Georgia  1832   o   Georgia  Citizens  laws  did  not  extend  onto  Native  Lands   o   Federal  government  was  responsible  to  move  the  settlers  off  of  the  native  land,   BUT  Jackson  was  in  charge  so  he  didn’t  enforce  what  the  supreme  court  had  said   o   John  Ross  (Cherokee  Leader)  said  they  had  had  enough     Seminole  Wars/  US  Annexation  of  FL  (1835-­‐42)   •   Terrain  of  FL  made  the  resistance  possible   •   Seminoles  put  up  successful  fight  against  the  armies  for  many  years     Second  Seminole  War   •   Incredibly  unpopular  in  the  US  because  it  sucked  a  lot  of  money  and  materials   •   Resisted  the  US  army  for  about  7  years   •   10,000  US  troops  engaged   •   30,000  militiamen   •   Millions  of  dollars  spent   •   Low-­‐Intensity  guerilla  war   •   Seminoles  had  the  defensive   •   Because  of  the  expense  and  number  of  men  being  used,  US  army  gave  up  and  the   Seminoles  remained     Mexico  and  the  US  1823   •   Mexico  got  independence  from  Spain  in  1821   •   Mexico  was  trying  to  get  more  people  to  settle  because  they  saw  the  US  looking  at  it     US  citizen’s  right  to  land?  1830s   •   Gente  de  razon  (People  of  reason),  gente  sin  razon  (people  without  reason)   US  Immigration  to  Texas   •   3,000  illegal  immigrants  by  1830   •   Mexican  response:  assimilation  program  and  cheap  land   •   30,000  non-­‐assimilated  Americans  by  1835   •   Political  unrest  among  Tejanos  and  Texans  (US  citizens)  as  Mexican  politics  shift   •   Land  owners  wanted  to  bring  their  slaves,  but  Mexico  had  already  outlawed  slavery   •   Texas  was  part  of  Mexico  for  a  long  time,  but  US  wanted  to  annex  Texas     Race  and  Expansion   •   “The  Anglo-­‐  Saxon  race”  (The  better  race)   o   People  living  in  CA/TX  has  to  define  themselves  in  clear  ways  as  the  people  who   they  see  as  ‘not  them’   o   Defined  in  opposition  to:  Blacks,  Indians,  Hispanics,  Catholics     Election  of  1844   •   Whigs  put  Henry  Clay  as  their  presidential  candidates   •   Democrats  appear  to  be  running  Martin  Van  Buren   •   The  two  decided  they  would  leave  slavery  out  of  the  election,  but  the  democrats  found   that  wasn’t  what  they  wanted,  so  they  changed  their  candidate  to  Polk  because  he   would  talk  about  slavery  (wanted  to  expand)  and  he  wanted  to  annex  TX   •   Polk  “54-­‐40  or  fight!”     American  Anti  War  Tradition   •   Loyalists  in  the  Revolution   •   Republicans  during  the  Quasi  War   •   Federalists  during  the  War  of  1812   •   Abolitionists,  Pacifists,  Whigs  during  the  1840s     US  War  with  Mexico  1846-­‐1848   •   In  TX  there  is  a  series  of  rivers  running  to  the  gulf     •   US  claimed  their  border  as  the  Rio  Grand  but  Mexico  saw  a  different  border,  so  there   was  a  dispute   •   President  Polk  Sent  troops  across  Nueces  River  in  TX   o   Mexico  now  saw  that  they  were  being  invaded   o   US  Thought  they  were  being  invaded  when  Mexico  tried  to  fight  back   §   Polk  to  congress:  Mexico  “invaded  our  territory  and  shed  American  blood   on  American  soil”     Northern  Mexico   •   Mobility   o   “flying  artillery”  dragoons   •   Gen.  Taylor  “old  rough  and  ready”   •   Infantry,  artillery,  cavalry   o   Artillery  were  incredibly  important:  they  didn’t  have  many,  but  the  direction,   rate  of  fire,  placement  was  decisive   o   Mexican  army  still  using  smooth  bore  muskets  that  couldn’t  fire  very  far   nd 2  engagement:  Battle  of  Resaca  de  La  Palma     •   Cavalry  Charges  back  and  forth   •   Occasional  infantry  charges     Southern  Mexico   •   Reduced  army,  but  good  officers  from  West  Point  (Lee  and  Grant)   o   Training,  discipline   •   Winfield  Scott  “Old  Fuss  and  Feathers”   o   In  charge  of  expedition  to  land  in  Vera  Crus  and  land  in  Mexico  City   §   Biggest  amphibious  landing  in  history  at  this  point   §   Bombardment  of  Vera  Cruz   §   Successful  taking  of  the  city;  but,  now  they  are  stuck  at  Vera  Cruz,  and   the  seasons  are  training,  and  it  is  about  to  become  Yellow  Fever  season;   Mexico  knows  this  too,  so  they  put  up  a  defense  at  Cerro  Gordo  to  trap   the  Americans  (where  in  a  few  weeks,  they  could  all  die  of  yellow  fever)   §   But,  Lee  was  really  good  at  flanking  maneuvers,  so  they  went  up  the  cliffs   with  all  of  the  cannons  and  were  able  to  capture  the  high  ground   §   The  next  day,  the  commanding  officer,  Twigs,  sent  two  different  units  to   attack  the  Mexican  units  and  send  them  running   §   Scott  continued  to  push  the  Mexicans  back;  he  had  to  move  quickly   because  a  third  of  his  soldier's  time  in  the  army  is  almost  up  and  they   want  to  go  home   §   When  the  got  to  Puebla,  Scott  let  go  of  his  supply  train  and  decided  his   army  was  going  to  live  off  of  the  land  because  guerillas  of  Mexicans  kept   attacking  the  supply  train   §   He  eventually  won  and  took  Mexico  City  and  bring  an  end  to  the  war     Treaty  of  Guadeloupe  Hidalgo  (1848)   •   Expanded  the  US  into  the  continental  nation  that  it  is  today:  AZ,  NM,  CA   o   Few  weeks  later,  gold  was  found  in  CA     Moving  West   •   Nicaragua  and  the  California  Gold  Fields   o   Most  people  who  went  to  the  CA  gold  fields  went  through  Nicaragua  (there  was   no  Panama  Canal  yet)   §   Faster  and  safer     Filibusters  (1850s);  Linking  Domestic  and  Foreign  Policy   •   William  Walker  put  together  an  Army,  went  to  Nicaragua,  exploited  an  ongoing  civil   strike  and  he  and  his  Nicaraguan  allies  won  the  conflict  and  he  declared  himself   president   •   Then  he  went  to  Honduras  to  do  the  same  thing,  and  they  killed  him     Sum  Up   •   War  with  Mexico  was  a  war  of  territorial  gains   •   Expansionist  notions  tied  to  racism,  slavery,  capitalist  expansion,  territorial   incorporation   •   US  Military  at  the  vanguard  of  change   •   Military  had  benefitted  from  professionalization,  training    


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