EPSS 101 - Lectures 3
EPSS 101 - Lectures 3
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Date Created: 04/14/14
llumen lrttelligence and Culture Theories for the development oi human intellience suggest that environmental pressures social interactions sexual selection andlor nutrition were driving factors Culture is the lealrned behavior transmitted from generation to generation Material culture results in the production cl artitacts Archaeologists excavate the ancient Gesher Benot Ya akov site in northern Israel where researchers have tound that early humans used fire ElDlU0O years ago y39i lit9QriCQ 5eporolet39 ttonto 5CLPi l39 l5 Cvltvw leoiitecl d39939 liritCl 39ll3913lll UitiElquot t lirltquotnolf lt lt5D W Q CUHUVQ iE tIlllt39iE i J iiovn ijtnctzttcwKt itwnoini om swig ohei built pvti t Etlt AL rult u39rQ Stotli H1015 Humans and Fire v The control oil tire is definitely humanity39s tirst quotkiller appquot Fire provided early and modem humans with several key capabilities Light extension of waking hours Warmth extension ofwaking hoursquot Protection from insects Protection from predators I Tool tor lhunting 3quot Tool for tool making r V Ability to colonize regions with colder ctimates i Focal point for group activities improved cornrnunication skills Ability to cook food lrnprovect taste Greatly inoreatses the range oil edible toods Cooked food releases more energy because your body needs to do less work to physically and chemically break it down this is why highly processed foods make us fat lcoolted food is much taster to eat than raw tood it lodtem humans would starve on a 100 raw food diet Cooked food enabled humanquots high physical and mental energy lifestyle Met result Humans burn things it39s in our DllA 0 Humans and Fire 1 he control of tire is det39tnitely h UWlVEltt1quot39y Sflf5 fikillel app g Fire provided eaity and modern humans with several key capabilities tight textension ot waking hours Warmth extension oil waiting hours Protection trorrl insects Protection trorn predators Tool for hunting Tool for tool making v Ability to colonize regions with colder climates Focal point for group activities improved communication sis Ability to cook food Improved taste Greatly increases the range of edible foods v Cootted tood releases more energy because your body needs to 39 do less work to physically and chemically break it down this is why IL P e In highly processed foods matte us fat yggj tllin l Cooked food is much faster to eat than raw food a Modern humans would starve on El llt3lt39l raw food diet Cooked food enabled human39s high physical and mental energy lifestyle i Net result Humans bum things it39s in our DNA quottlilfe t otE Srf Ct fooct tcroilt39 H3 C tlitik Stjiutrzft cot K i E iI39 9quot Hulw C5 u39DiU 9Ct riilltlf Ijtollit ttittC r tZ39 gm d Jp hquotJE 5 j iquot t tquott ft 39l 39t Dttt t3ttJl tow W Homo sapiens First evidence l Homo J so years ago fro the Onto T come river in Ethiopia thesis of DNA evidence from modern humans and archeology it has been possible to trace the migration history mankind out of Africa to cover the world Populatioin densities during the stone age were limited by the availability of resources for human39s lhuntertgatherer society gt9039 of the time available 0 for human evolution tHOOD q generations occurred when Migration Dates tthousands at year we were hunter gatherers mm mm ll Altatrnrirta Cave Bison 390 NP39l Cmct foa lt llZ k1tc39t quotrlC cmhote y lritEltdt39ttlI t gt lCtWj urllClfI 5 EotlllESt ljlilCc tquoti ltl39Ei iquottt3 it tZitiquot I F39HJ it 1tquotl jllquot7 5J 3 T sl ttcnrc ti l iilotltt Lkttlih t39itiilt if ll739Jil tt quot4f Plrit tLtE o t r ilU 5Q trctt tcjt tat i lit ii lCltFfquot Humans and Trade We have evidence of hunrlans trading with other humans over 121000 hears a o 7 no other animal trades T Trade is hypothesized to have evolved from specialized sex roles in humans which may have started even earlier a key difference between humans and Neande hails S i i ilization froles promotes econonnic growth by e tminating inef ciencv c Today most humans have very specialized roles and bene t from the specia ized production of others in today39s society it you make everything you have you are by de nition very poor Trade encourages specialization efficiency interdependence knowledge and peaoetul coexistence X Trade is hiumani 0 8 i tiUt i tot iE3 tytl o too it oi iri i39ili ted Z 939 l ttquotlS i tililquotCt t td et rlt lctlS lnrlrj HQ 3 ye imtelg iitimsoifgtiteii5 ltmi kH Wr cl sex ytttet trquot ttit i the tiHt quot E hquotLquot Ft ltl lit itrt Flt 1 t it39 l39 The Eve of the industrial Revolution 39 lellurnani populaition increased at a steady rate as forest lands were converted to farms 1Qlti iquott39li Pl In th late l7OCl39stthe rate of pgpulatiioin M V N y W growth increased clramaticalllfy T is LilAl t 391 X Until this time the main sources of energy available to civilization was human jndustriail Revolution imtetabolism work provided by dornesticated animals and heat and light energy provided by burning wood and the II bq eLl i 5 Inr 39l e animal tats One notable exception to the above statement is the watermill which had been r7 an m 0H used since Roman times to provide motive quot quotF power tor milling gratin crushing ores sharpening tools or sawing r wquot39i 390 Aquot39Q 93 9 g a 12quot Century Watermill in Belgium Human Civilization Human civilization was bom 8000 veers BC in the i ertite Crescent a region of stoutwe Asia where grasses with edible seeds grain sstilll grow a wild Analogous civilizations grew iindependemiy in the Americas soon aftenivards he cultivation of grain is humahity39s third kiiller assquot 39 Ciivilization is characterized by agrlcul3tttre increased occupational specialization and urbanism Cu ltivation of crops and having a ton of food around led to the creation of stable farrn communities the domestication of animals and eventually to writing an economy with ourrency legal systems art architecture mathematics metallurgy astronomy as they say the rest is history The spread of agriculture tfyears act from the iFertie Crescent tivllt2oi lUlr 39 iiJtleul rtii0 b t tiitcit tr 5ilZit i9 SiVL ClLtllCJi lti of iot 2 tit too it re o it on A Legacy of Deforestation Envitronmentalilsts in developed countries today wring their hands about deforestation today in developing countries However there was deforestation on an equally massive scale during the pre industrial era in Europe and ellsewhere inthe world By 1500 the civilized world was on the brink of a fuel and nutritional disaster due to the scarci f T as fuel and the scarcity of wild game which was a maior source of dietary protein T l i10 lt1l ZCl 39 I Estimated land I e E I F53 39 use by a primitive it 239 P6 39 European village 39 5 of 30 people Each person in the village required a woodland area of tCt5 turn on a side 3 to maintain their i lifestyle History of deforestation in the ltihited States E iEV Mj 1lT l39 I39 LJ ia39ttg E b T 0 in ll 39quotW 7 h I l39titl ti p ticfi Clrtid w39t Cl Wt E 39lilft til it t 39 3 M quotTh i1ail Zl5
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