Human Biology Notes: Week Three
Human Biology Notes: Week Three 63956
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Herscher on Wednesday February 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 63956 at San Francisco State University taught by Holly Harris in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see BIOL 100 in Biology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 02/18/15
Lipids Human Biology Week Three 0 Fats phospholipids steroids and waxes o Hydrophobic insoluble in water 0 Many contain long chains of hydrocarbons called fatty acids 0 Types of Lipids Fats Nutrients Created by combining glycerol and fatty acids Contains twice the energy of carbohydrates Stored as fat droplets in adipose cells Important for cushioning and insulation The body needs 30 of its caloric intake to come from fat Saturated and Unsaturated Fat Unsaturated oils good fats usually a liquid at 20 degrees Celsius Fatty acids with single bonds between all the carbon pairs Saturated butter bad fats usually a solid at 20 degrees Celsius Fatty acids that contain double bonds between one or more pairs of carbon atoms Lipoproteins Low Density Lipoproteins bad cholesterol can cause heart disease High Density Lipoproteins good cholesterol carries away bad cholesterol Hypercholesterolemia having a high level of low density lipoproteins o Are either utilized or stored until needed Vitamins c There are three Vitamins that the human body cannot create itself Minerals Vitamin B 12 which is needed for metabolic function 0 Found in meat cheese eggs and liver there is no vegan source Vitamin C which is needed for the bones teeth collagen cartilage and the immune system 0 Found mainly in citrus fruit Folic Acid which helps the body produce and maintain cells along with protecting DNA strands from mutating which is what causes cancer Inorganic do not contain carbon Essential for metabolic functions Essential for the formation of hemoglobin Essential for the immune system Calcium Essential for muscles and nerves Calculate your Body Mass Index BMI 0 Rough estimate of body fat that doesn39t account for frame size or muscle mass Factors Affecting BMI Sleep the human body needs seven hours of sleep or more per night 0 Exercise helps with a number of things including getting more sleep and better grades Calculate Basal Metabolic Rate BMR Most people burn around 2000 to 2500 calories a day 0 The human body needs aerobic activities to maintain its metabolic rate 0 People need to do 3060 minutes of aerobic exercise per day to prevent weight gain and 6090 minutes for weight loss Four Hormones which Affect Hunger and Appetite Ghrelin secreted by the stomach stimulates appetite Insulin secreted by pancreas suppress appetite causes hunger later by lowering blood sugar PYY secreted by the small intestine suppresses hunger when full Leptin secreted by the liver suppresses appetite as fat storage rises Phospholipids 0 Combination of two fatty acids glycerol and a phosphate group 0 They make up our cell membranes Steroids 0 Made from cholesterolExample chemical messengers sex and stress hormones Example chemical messengers sex and stress hormones Waxes 0 Combination of alcohols and fatty acid tail Fun Fact One of the best foods for carbo loading before endurance events is rice Nucleic Acids 0 Made of Nucleotides Examples DNA RNA and ATP ATP Adenosine Triphosphate energy storage molecule Proteins Lipids and Nucleic Acid Organic Molecule Monomers or Base Molecules Polymers or Larger Molecules Protein Amino Acids Enzymes Hormones and Antibodies Lipids Fatty Acid and Glycerol Fats Phospholipids Steroids and Waxes Nucleic Acids Nucleotides DNA RNA and ATP DNA and RNA 0 DNA programs all of the cell activity 0 RNA brings the DNA s message outside of the nucleus Messenger RNA mRNA code is translated into proteins by ribosomes 0 DNA to mRNA to protein is the central dogma of molecular biology M gt RNA gtT rotcins Transcription Translation Replication DNA Double Helix Sequence of bases encode information in the gene Located in the nucleus of a cell Can and Will replicate Transfers information to RNA Four Nitrogenous Bases for DNA 0 Cytosine Guanin Thymine Adeni o C is paired With G While T is paired with A o C and G have a triple bond While A and T only have a double bond RNA Ribo Nucleic Acid 0 Single Stranded o Messenger RNA mRNA is transcribed from DNA transcription mRNA is then translated by ribosomes into a protein translation mRNA messenger RNA tRNA transfer RNA rRNA ribosomes Translation 0 Amino Acids brought to mRNA on ribosome by transfer RNA tRNA 0 Each triplet code codes for an amino acid Fun Fact RNA contains nucleic acids ATP Adenosine TriPhosphate 0 ATP becomes ADP Adenosine DiPhosphate 0 Breaking apart ATP to ADP releases energy to another molecule 0 This is known as ATP hydrolysis 0 Making ATP Cellular Respiration Breaking down glucose proteins or lipids in cellular respiration to make ATP Cellular Respiration 02 Glucose C02 H20 36 ATP Energy Flow 0 When we consume more sugar than we need for cellular respiration we convert it to glycogen Glycogen gets stored in liver and muscle cells When exercising glycogen converts to lactic acid Fun Fact The basic unit of glycogen is glucose Cell Theory 1 Organisms are composed of one or more cells 2 A cell is the smallest unit that has properties of life 3 All cells come from preeXisting cells 0 All Cells Have A plasma membrane on the outside DNA Hereditary instructions in every cell Cytoplasm material outside of the nucleus but inside the plasma membrane consisting of think jellylike uid called cytosol Parts of the Cell and Their Functions Cell Part Function Nucleus Directs Cell Function and Contains DNA the brain of the cell Mitochondria Makes ATP energy Power House Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Makes Protein Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Makes Lipids Ribosomes Synthesize and Modify Proteins Cell Membrane Barrier to the Outside protects the cell Golgi Bodies Modifies Sorts and Ships Materials Lysosomes Recycles Material Peroxisome Destroys Toxins Centrioles Used in Cell Division Cytoskeleton Backbone of the Cell 0 Prokaryotic Cell Lack a Nucleus No membrane bound organelles Free strands of DNA Example Archaea and Eubacteria Eurkaryotic Cell DNA enclosed in nucleus Membrane bound organelles Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis Example All Eukarya plants animals fungi and protista Nature of Cells Mostly microscopic Small size surface to volume ratio 0 Important for regulating internal cell environment Trillions of cells in the body Cell examples Blood Fat and Muscle and Nerve Cell Walls Some organisms have cell walls composed of carbohydrates found in plant cells Organelles Membrane bound compartments keep cell alive and maintain homeostasis Isolate chemical reactions Plant and Animal Cell Differences Plant cells contain chloroplasts large water vacuoles and a cell wall Selectively Permeable Membranes Four Ways of Passive Transport 0 Simple Diffusion from high concentration to low concentration 0 Osmosis water diffusion from more water hypotonic to less water hypertonic Cell can blow up if too much water comes in Cell will shrivel up from lack of water Isotonic is the perfect amount of water Fun Fact Biologists currently de ne living as things that are made of cells
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